2–methylimidazole production

2-methylimidazole, also known as two-methylimidazole,it is white needle crystal or crystalline powder under room temperature . Relative molecular mass of 82.11. Melting point 145 ~ 146 °C. Boiling point 267 °C.it Can be sublimated. Flash point of 160 °C. Insoluble in ether, cold benzene, soluble in water, alcohols, ketones. Irritant to skin and mucous membranes. Mice by mouth LD501400mg/kg. 2 – methylimidazole pesticide production antitrichomonal Flagyl (metronidazole) intermediates. Is epoxy resin curing agent, and other curing accelerator, an amine curing agent occupies a special position in the epoxy resin curing agent in the temperature, may be used alone, in a short time after heat treatment, heating can be obtained cured high temperature deformation. It is mainly used for powder molding and powder coating curing accelerator. May 2 – imidazoline dehydrogenation.

1.Chemical properties

2-methylimidazole is Solid. Soluble in water, ethanol, slightly soluble in cold benzene.

2.Use

Metronidazole for pharmaceutical intermediates, epoxy resin curing agent,
The material is drug metronidazole and feed growth promoters dimethyl azole intermediates, as well epoxy and other resin curing agent. As the temperature of the solid epoxy resin through the agent may be used alone, but primarily for powder molding and powder coating curing accelerator.

2.Production

1)glyoxal, acetaldehyde, and ammonia as raw materials, the reaction of 2-methyl-imidazole crude, sublimation purification, can be obtained products.

2)ethylenediamine and acetonitrile as raw materials, the reaction in the presence of sulfur to produce imidazoline, again in the presence of a nickel catalyst, at 200 °C dehydrogenation, can be prepared from 2 – methylimidazole products.

3)to glyoxal and methylamine in the presence of formaldehyde reaction, can be obtained.

Production methods from 2-imidazoline dehydrogenation eliminated. 2-imidazoline heating and melting (melting point 107 °C), active nickel was added carefully, the reaction temperature was raised to 200-210 °C 2h. Cooling to below 150 °C, dissolved in water, hot pressure filtration, separation active nickel, the filtrate was concentrated to a temperature above 140 °C, discharge cooling that is to give 2-methylimidazole. With the production of a purity of ≥ 98% of the product, 1t products consume ethylene diamine (95%) 1095kg, acetonitrile 975kg. A better approach is to use glyoxal and formaldehyde as raw materials.

Something about Silver nitrate

Silver nitrate is an inorganic compound with chemical formula AgNO3. This compound is a versatile precursor to many other silver compounds, such as those used in photography. It is far less sensitive to light than the halides. It was once called lunar caustic because silver was called luna by the ancient alchemists.

Silver nitrate is the least expensive salt of silver; it offers several other advantages as well. It is non-hygroscopic, in contrast to silver fluoroborate and silver perchlorate. It is relatively stable to light. Finally, it dissolves in numerous solvents, including water. The nitrate can be easily replaced by other ligands, rendering AgNO3 versatile. Treatment with solutions of halide ions gives a precipitate of AgX (X = Cl, Br, I). When making photographic film, silver nitrate is treated with halide salts of sodium or potassium to form insoluble silver halide in situ in photographic gelatin, which is then applied to strips of tri-acetate or polyester. Similarly, silver nitrate is used to prepare some silver-based explosives, such as the fulminate, azide, or acetylide, through a precipitation reaction.

Silver salts have antiseptic properties. Until the development and widespread adoption of antibiotics, dilute solutions of AgNO3 used to be dropped into newborn babies’ eyes at birth to prevent contraction of gonorrhea from the mother. Eye infections and blindness of newborns was reduced by this method; incorrect dosage, however, could cause blindness in extreme cases. This protection was first used by Credé in 1881.Fused silver nitrate, shaped into sticks, was traditionally called “lunar caustic”. It is used as a cauterizing agent, for example to remove granulation tissue around a stoma. General Sir James Abbott noted in his journals that in India in 1827 it was infused by a British surgeon into wounds in his arm resulting from the bite of a mad dog to cauterize the wounds and prevent the onset of rabies.Dentists sometimes use silver nitrate infused swabs to heal oral ulcers. Silver nitrate is also used by some podiatrists to kill cells located in the nail bed. Silver nitrate is also used to cauterize superficial blood vessels in the nose to help prevent nose bleeds.

As an oxidant, silver nitrate should be properly stored away from organic compounds. Despite its common usage in extremely low concentrations to prevent gonorrhea and control nose bleeds, silver nitrate is still very much toxic and corrosive.Brief exposure will not produce any immediate side effects other than the purple, brown or black stains on the skin; but upon constant exposure to high concentrations, side effects will be noticeable, which include burns. Long-term exposure may cause eye damage. Silver nitrate is known to be a skin and eye irritant.

Silver nitrate is currently unregulated in water sources by the Environmental Protection Agency. However, if more than 1 gram of silver is accumulated in the body, a condition called argyria may develop. Argyria is a permanent cosmetic condition in which the skin and internal organs turn a blue-gray color. The United States Environmental Protection Agency used to have a maximum contaminant limit for silver in water until 1990, when it was determined that argyria did not impact the function of any affected organs.Argyria is more often associated with the consumption of colloidal silver solutions rather than with silver nitrate, since it is only used at extremely low concentrations to disinfect the water. However, it is still important to be wary before ingesting any sort of silver-ion solution.

Silver nitrate properties

 

Product Name:Silver nitrate

CAS:7761-88-8

mp: 212 °C (dec.)(lit.)

bp: 444°C

density: 4.35 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)

vapor density: 5.8 (vs air)

Fp:40 °C

storage temp:2-8°C

solubility H2O: soluble

Water Solubility: 219 g/100 mL (20 ºC)

Sensitive: Light Sensitive

Merck: 14,8518

CAS DataBase Reference:7761-88-8

Chemical Properties:Colorless or white solid

General Description:A colorless or white crystalline solid becoming black on exposure to light or organic material.

Air & Water Reactions:Water soluble.

 

Health Hazard:Concentrated solutions will produce irritation, ulceration, and discoloration of the skin; also causes severe irritation of the eyes. Ingestion will produce violent abdominal pain and other gastroenteric symptoms.
Fire Hazard Behavior in Fire: Increases flammability of combustibles.

 

Silver nitrate is noncombustible but, as an oxidizing agent, can accelerate the burning of combustible materials. If large quantities are involved in a fire or the combustible material is finely divided, an explosion may result. Prolonged exposure to fire or heat may result in an explosion. Toxic oxides of nitrogen are produced in fires. Light sensitive. Mixtures with alkyl esters may explode owing to the formation of alkyl nitrates. Mixtures with phosphorus, tin(II) chloride, or other reducing agents may react explosively . Reacts with acetylene in the presence of ammonia to form silver acetylide, a powerful detonator when dry . Reaction with ethyl alcohol (or other alcohols) may produce silver fulminate, which can explode when disturbed. An intimate mixture of Silver nitrate and magnesium may ignite spontaneously on contact with a drop of water. An explosion occurred when purified phosphine was passed rapidly into a concentrated solution of Silver nitrate. When a mixture of 28% ammonium hydroxide and Silver nitrate solution was treated with a small amount of sodium hydroxide. Black precipitate, silver nitride exploded on stirring.

 

How to use niclosamide properly?

Niclosamide (CAS.NO:50-65-7) is a teniacide (“tenia-” referring to tapeworm) in the anthelmintic family especially effective against cestodes that infect humans. It is also used as a piscicide. It is stressed that while antihelmintics are a drug family used to treat worm infections, Niclosamide is used specifically to treat tapeworms and is not effective against other worms such as pinworms or roundworms. It is a chewable tablet taken orally, dosage depending on type of worm and patient’s age and/or weight. Niclosamide molecules are lethal to tapeworms upon contact.

 

 

The medication can have side effects such as abdominal pain, anorexia, diarrhea, and emesis. Rarely, dizziness, skin rash, drowsiness, perianal itching, and an unpleasant taste.so maybe you should know how to ues it proper.

1.No special preparations or additional steps (for example, special diets, fasting, other medicines, laxatives, or enemas) are necessary before, during, or immediately after taking niclosamide.

2.Niclosamide may be taken on an empty stomach (either 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal). However, to prevent stomach upset, it is best taken after a light meal (for example, breakfast).

3.Niclosamide tablets should be thoroughly chewed or crushed and then swallowed with a small amount of water. If niclosamide is being given to a young child, the tablets should be crushed to a fine powder and mixed with a small amount of water to form a paste.

4.For patients taking niclosamide for beef tapeworms or broad or fish tapeworms:

5.To help clear up your infection completely, take niclosamide exactly as directed by your doctor. Usually one dose is enough. However, in some patients a second dose of niclosamide may be required to clear up the infection completely.

6.To help clear up your infection completely, keep taking niclosamide for the full time of treatment (usually 7 days) , even if your symptoms begin to clear up after a few days. In some patients, a second course of niclosamide may be required to clear up the infection completely. If you stop taking niclosamide too soon, your infection may return. Do not miss any doses. Some patients with tapeworm infections may not notice any symptoms or may have only mild symptoms.

Indapamide medicine

Indapamide is a diuretic (water pill) that is used primarily for the treatment of high blood pressure. It works by preventing the kidney from reabsorbing (retaining in the body) salt and water that is destined to be eliminated in the urine. This results in increased urine output (diuresis). Indapamide also is thought to reduce the salt in the smooth muscle of the walls of blood vessels. (The salt ultimately is eliminated in the urine.) The loss of salt from the muscle causes the muscle to relax, and the relaxation of the vessels results in reduced blood pressure. Indapamide was approved by the FDA in 1983.

 

 

Indapamide is used to treat high blood pressure. Indapamide is also used to reduce extra salt and fluid in the body (edema) caused by a certain heart problem (congestive heart failure). Lowering high blood pressure helps prevent strokes, heart attacks, and kidney problems. Decreasing extra salt and fluid in the body helps to decrease swelling and breathing problems from congestive heart failure and increases your ability to exercise.Indapamide is a “water pill” (diuretic) that increases the amount of urine you make. Getting rid of extra water and salt may help to relax the blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily. These effects help to lower blood pressure and decrease the amount of work the heart must do to pump blood.

 

 

Take indapamide by mouth with or without food, usually once daily in the morning or as directed by your doctor. It is best to avoid taking this medication within 4 hours of your bedtime to avoid having to get up during the night to urinate. Consult your doctor or pharmacist if you have questions about your dosing schedule.The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment.Use this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same time each day. It is important to continue taking this medication even if you feel well. Most people with high blood pressure do not feel sick. It may take up to several weeks before the full benefit of this drug takes effect.Tell your doctor if your condition does not improve or if it worsens (your blood pressure readings remain high or increase).

 

 

Store at room temperature between 59-86 degrees F (15-30 degrees C) away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medicines away from children and pets.Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so.

 

What should to be take care of about Indapamide?

Indapamide is a thiazide-like diuretic drug marketed by Servier, generally used in the treatment of hypertension, as well as decompensated cardiac failure.


Indapamide belongs to a group of medicines called diuretics. A diuretic is a medicine which increases the amount of urine that you pass out from your kidneys. They are often referred to as water tablets. Diuretics are a common treatment for hypertension (high blood pressure).

Diuretics like indapamide work by interfering with the transport of salt and water across certain cells in your kidneys. The effect of this is to make your kidneys pass out more urine. They also widen (dilate) blood vessels. A combination of these two effects reduces high blood pressure.

Indapamide can be used on its own or alongside other medicines which reduce blood pressure. It is also available as a combination tablet with a medicine called perindopril arginine.

Treatment for high blood pressure is usually long-term. Although many people with high blood pressure do not feel unwell, if left untreated, high blood pressure can harm your heart and damage your blood vessels. This damage may later result in a heart attack, stroke, or kidney problems, so it is important that you continue to take these tablets regularly to help reduce the risk of this.

Try to keep your regular appointments with your doctor. This is so your doctor can monitor your blood pressure and check on your progress. Also, the salt balance in your bloodstream may be upset by indapamide and your doctor may want you to have a blood test from time to time to check for this.

You may be given some lifestyle or dietary advice by your doctor, such as stopping smoking, reducing the amount of salt in your diet and taking some regular exercise. Following this advice will also help to reduce the risk of damage to your heart and blood vessels.

Diuretics like indapamide help you to lose water. Occasionally you may lose too much and become dehydrated. Let your doctor know if you feel constantly thirsty, your mouth is dry, or your skin looks and feels dry.

Drinking alcohol while you are on indapamide may make you feel dizzy. Ask for your doctor’s advice about whether you should avoid alcohol.

If you buy any medicines, check with a pharmacist that they are suitable to take alongside indapamide.

If you are having an operation or dental treatment, tell the person carrying out the treatment which medicines you are taking.

If you are an athlete, you should be aware that indapamide may give a positive reaction in doping tests.

 

Medicine of Fenofibrate

Fenofibrate is a prescription medication that is used to decrease triglycerides (a fat-like substance) and cholesterol levels in the body.

Fenofibrate has  several uses:

Improving cholesterol levels in people with hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol) or dyslipidemia (unhealthy cholesterol levels). Fenofibrate can reduce total cholesterol, LDL (“bad” cholesterol), apo B (a component of cholesterol that is related to several heart disease risk factors), and VLDL (very low density lipoprotein cholesterol). The medication can also raise HDL (“good” cholesterol).

Triglycerides in people with hypertriglyceridemia (high triglyceride levels). Very high triglyceride levels in the body increase the risk for developing a condition known as pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas).
Fenofibrate may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:

*constipation

*diarrhea

*heartburn

*pain in the back, arm, or legs

*headache

Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately:

*weakness

*muscle pain or tenderness

*joint pain

*fever

*blistering or peeling skin

*rash

*hives

*pain in the upper back between the shoulder blades or under the right shoulder

*stomach pain, especially in the upper right part of the stomach

*nausea

*vomiting

*redness, swelling, pain, tenderness, or warmth in one leg

*shortness of breath

*pain when breathing

*coughing up blood