Epilepsy treatment

Epilepsy is a common and diverse set of chronic neurological disorders characterized by seizures. It is a paroxysmal behavioral spell generally caused by an excessive disorderly discharge of cortical nerve cells of brain and can range from clinically undetectable (electrographic seizures) to convulsions. Some definitions of epilepsy require that seizures be recurrent and unprovoked,

Epilepsy cannot be cured with medication. However, with the right type and strength of medication, the majority of people with epilepsy do not have seizures. The medicines work by stabilising the electrical activity of the brain. You need to take medication every day to prevent seizures.

Medicines used to treat epilepsy include: carbamazepine,2-Propylvaleric acid sodium salt ,  lamotrigine, phenytoin, oxcarbazepine, ethosuximide, gabapentin, levetiracetam, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, phenobarbital, primidone and clonazepam. They each come in different brand names.

The success in controlling seizures by medication varies depending on the type of epilepsy. For example, if no underlying cause can be found for your seizures (idiopathic epilepsy), you have a very good chance that medication can fully control your seizures. Seizures caused by some underlying brain problems may be more difficult to control.
Doctors generally begin by treating epilepsy with medication. If medications don’t treat the condition, doctors may propose surgery or another type of treatment.

1. Medication

Most people with epilepsy can become seizure-free by taking one anti-seizure medication, called anti-epileptic medication. Others may be able to decrease the frequency and intensity of their seizures by taking medications. Your doctor will advise you about the appropriate time to stop taking medications.

Although many people continue to need some medication to help prevent seizures after successful surgery, you may be able to take fewer drugs and reduce your dosages.

In a small number of cases, surgery for epilepsy can cause complications such as permanently altering your thinking (cognitive) abilities. Talk to your surgeon about his or her experience, success rates and complication rates with the procedure you’re considering.

2. Therapies

1) Vagus nerve stimulation. In vagus nerve stimulation, doctors implant a device called a vagus nerve stimulator underneath the skin of your chest, similar to a heart pacemaker. Wires from the stimulator are connected to the vagus nerve in your neck.

The battery-powered device sends bursts of electrical energy through the vagus nerve and to your brain. It’s not clear how this inhibits seizures, but the device can usually reduce seizures by 20 to 40 percent.

Most people still need to take anti-epileptic medication, although some people may be able to lower their medication dose. You may experience side effects from vagus nerve stimulation, such as throat pain, hoarse voice, shortness of breath or coughing.

2). Ketogenic diet. Some children with epilepsy have been able to reduce their seizures by following a strict diet that’s high in fats and low in carbohydrates.

In this diet, called a ketogenic diet, the body breaks down fats instead of carbohydrates for energy. After a few years, some children may be able to stop the ketogenic diet and remain seizure-free.

Consult a doctor if you or your child is considering a ketogenic diet. It’s important to make sure that your child doesn’t become malnourished when taking the diet.

Side effects of a ketogenic diet may include dehydration, constipation, slowed growth because of nutritional deficiencies, and buildup of uric acid in the blood, which can cause kidney stones. These side effects are uncommon if the diet is properly and medically supervised.

3).Potential future treatments

Researchers are studying brain stimulation as a potential treatment for epilepsy. In brain stimulation, surgeons implant electrodes into a specific part of your brain. The electrodes are connected to a generator implanted in your chest or the skull that sends electrical pulses to your brain and may reduce your seizures.

Researchers also study stereotactic radiosurgery as a potential treatment for some types of epilepsy. In this procedure, doctors direct radiation at the specific area of your brain that is causing your seizure.

Study about the effect of NMP on human and evironment

N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (CAS No. 872-50-4) is also known as NMP, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, N-methylpyrrolidone, and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone. NMP is a colourless liquid with a mild amine odour. It is a basic and polar compound with high stability. It is only slowly oxidized by air and is easily purified by fractional distillation. NMP is hygroscopic. The substance is completely miscible with water. It is highly soluble in lower alcohols, lower ketones, ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and benzene and moderately soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons.

NMP is mainly used as a solvent for extraction in the petrochemical industry, as a reactive medium in polymeric and non-polymeric chemical reactions, as a remover of graffiti, as a paint stripper in the occupational setting, and for stripping and cleaning applications in the microelectronics fabrication industry. It is also used as a formulating agent in pigments, dyes, and inks and in insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. NMP is further used as an intermediate in the pharmaceutical industry, as a penetration enhancer for topically applied drugs, and as a vehicle in the cosmetics industry.
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) (CAS No. 872-50-4) is a water-miscible organic solvent. It is a hygroscopic colourless liquid with a mild amine odour. NMP is used in the petrochemical industry, in the microelectronics fabrication industry, and in the manufacture of various compounds, including pigments, cosmetics, drugs, insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. An increasing use of NMP is as a substitute for chlorinated hydrocarbons. NMP may enter the environment as emissions to the atmosphere, as the substance is volatile and widely used as a solvent, or it may be released to water as a component of municipal and industrial wastewaters. The substance is mobile in soil, and leaching from landfills is thus a possible route of contamination of groundwater.

In air, NMP is expected to be removed by wet deposition or by photochemical reactions with hydroxyl radicals. As the substance is completely miscible in water, it is not expected to adsorb to soil, sediments, or suspended organic matter or to bioconcentrate. NMP is not degraded by chemical hydrolysis. Data from screening tests on the biodegradability of NMP show that the substance is rapidly biodegraded.

Sampling of NMP in air may be performed on solid sorbent or in absorption solution. NMP is desorbed from the solid adsorbent and extracted from the absorption solution by an organic solvent. Analysis of NMP in a liquid phase is performed by gas chromatographic methods, employing flame ionization detection (FID) or nitrogen–phosphorus detection (NPD). The detection limits of these methods (15 min, 0.2 litres/min) correspond to NMP air concentrations of 0.1 mg/m3 (FID) and 0.01 mg/m3

N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone in air

A 23-year-old laboratory technician was occupationally exposed to N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone( NMP) during her first 20 weeks of pregnancy. The uptake via the lungs was probably of minor importance, as the NMP was handled at room temperature. Hand rinsing of glassware with NMP and cleaning up of an NMP spill in week 16 of pregnancy may have brought about a much larger uptake through the skin. During the 4 days following the spill, malaise, headache, and nausea were experienced. Examination of the pregnancy at week 14 showed no signs of delayed development; however, at week 25, signs of delayed fetal development were observed, and at week 31, a stillborn fetus was delivered. Stillbirth in this period of pregnancy is unusual. However, as the level of exposure is unknown, it is impossible to establish if exposure to N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone is the causative factor .

1.Study on human

A total of 15 24-h exposures in a repeated-insult patch test in human subjects (n = 50) caused minor to moderate transient irritations. No signs of contact sensitization were observed. Direct contact of skin with NMP caused redness, swelling, thickening, and painful vesicles when NMP was used as a cleaner or as a paint stripper . Workers exposed to N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone in working areas with air concentrations up to 280 mg/m3  reported severe eye irritation and headache. With the methods of assessing the exposure level  and the response , it is impossible to develop a concentration– response relationship . Six volunteers exposed to 10, 25, or 50 mg/m3 during 8 h in a chamber study registered their symptoms, before the start of exposure and then every 2 h for 16 h, in a questionnaire on a scale from 0 to 10 (0 = no symptoms and 10 = not tolerated). The volunteers displayed none of the following symptoms: eye or respiratory tract irritation; hacking cough, nose secretion, or blockage, sneezing, itching, or dryness in the mouth and throat, or other symptoms in upper airways; itching, secretion, smarting pain, visual disturbances, or other symptoms such as headache, dizziness, and nausea; and other symptoms. Two volunteers reported detecting an odour at 50 mg/m3. There were no significant differences in the spirometric data displayed by the forced expiratory volume in 1 s, vital capacity, and the highest forced expiratory capacity measured before or after any level of exposure. There were no acute changes in the nasal cavity assessed by continuous acoustic rhinometry.

Even though the effects observed in this study were not very pronounced, the possibility of undetected effects still remains
2.Evaluation of environmental effects

Water and air are considered to be the most relevant compartments for NMP, since the substance may be released both as volatile emissions to the atmosphere and as a component of wastewater, municipal as well as industrial. Since the substance shows high mobility in soil, leaching from landfills is a possible route of contamination of groundwaters. NMP is expected to be removed from air by wet deposition or by reaction with hydroxyl radicals. The substance is not transformed by chemical hydrolysis but is rapidly  biodegraded under aerobic conditions. The substance is not expected to bioconcentrate. Very few reliable ecotoxicological data were found.

However, the available results from short-term tests on aquatic species (fish, crustaceans, algae, and bacteria) and terrestrial species (birds) indicate that NMP has low acute toxicity. Also, very few data on measured concentrations in the environment were identified. The available ecotoxicological data should not be used for a quantitative risk assessment until fully evaluated. As a tentative conclusion, however, based on the biodegradability of the substance, the absence of bioconcentration tendency, and the indicated low acute aquatic toxicity, NMP is not expected to present a significant risk to the environment.

The compounds of phosphorus

Phosphorus is a nonmetallic chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15. A multivalent pnictogen, phosphorus as a mineral is almost always present in its maximally oxidised state, as inorganic phosphate rocks. Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms—white phosphorus and red phosphorus—but due to its high reactivity, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth.


There is some compounds containing phosphorus, oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and some other compounds of phosphorus. For each compound, a formal oxidation number for phosphorus is given,  In compounds of phosphorus (where known), the most common oxidation numbers of phosphorus are: 5, 3, and -3.


1. Hydrides

The term hydride is used to indicate compounds of the type MxHy and not necessarily to indicate that any compounds listed behave as hydrides chemically.


Phosphine: PH3

Diphosphorus tetrahydride: P2H4


2. Fluorides

Phosphorus trifluoride: PF3

Phosphorus pentafluoride: PF5

Diphosphorus tetrafluoride: P2F4


3. Chlorides

Phosphorus trichloride: PCl3

Phosphorus pentachloride: PCl5

Diphosphorus tetrachloride: P2Cl4

Phosphorus oxychloride: POCl3

Dichlorvos: (CH3O)2P(O)OCH=CCl2


4. Bromides

Phosphorus pentabromide: PBr5

Diphosphorus tetrabromide: P2Br4

Dimethyl-1,2-dibromo-2,2-dichlorethyl phosphate: (CH3O)2P(O)OCHBrCBrCl2


5. Iodides

Phosphorus triiodide: PI3

Diphosphorus tetraiodide: P2I4


6. Oxides

Tetraphosphorus decaoxide: P4O10

Tetraphosphorus hexaoxide: P4O6


7. Sulfides

Phosphorus pentasulfide: P2S5

Phosphorus pentasulfide: P4S10

Phosphorus Trisulfide: P2S3

Sulprofos: C12H19O2PS3

Azinphos-methyl: C10H12O3PS2N3 [(CH3O)2P(S)SCH2(N3C7H4O)]

Fenthion: C10H15O3PS [(CH3O)2P(S)OC6H3(CH3)SCH3]

Fonofos: C10H15OPS2

Chlorpyrifos: C9H11Cl3NO3PS

Demeton: (C2H5O)2PSOC2H4SC2H5

Dimethyl glycol phthalate: C12H21N2O3PS

Disulfoton: C8H19O2PS3 [(C2H5O)2P(S)S(CH2)2SC2H5]

EPN: C14H14O4NSP [(C2H5O(C6H5)P(S)OC6H4NO2)]

Ethion: [(C2H5O)2P(S)S]2CH2

Ethyl butyrate: [(CH3CH2O)2PS]2O

Ethyl parathion: (C2H5O)2P(S)OC6H4NO2

Fenamiphos: C13H22NO3PS

Fensulfothion: C11H17O4PS2 [(C2H5O)2P(S)OC6H4S(O)CH3]

Malathion: C10H19O6PS2 [(CH3O)2P(S)SCH(COOC2H5)CH2COOC2H5]

Methyl demeton: C6H15O3PS2 [(CH3O)2P(S)O[CH2]2SCH2CH3]

Methyl parathion: (CH3O)2P(S)OC6H4NO2

Phorate: (C2H5O)2P(S)SCH2SC2H5


8. Others

Phosphoric acid: H3PO4

Calcium phosphide: Ca3P2

Dibutyl phosphate: (C4H9O)2(OH)PO

Dicrotophos: C8H16NO5P

Monocrotophos: C7H14NO5P [(CH3O)2P(O)OC(CH3)=CHC(O)NHCH3]

Phenylphosphine: C6H5PH2

Triphenylphosphine: P(C6H5)3

Tetraethyl pyrophosphate: [(CH3CH2O)2PO]2O

Tetrasodium pyrophosphate: Na4P2O7

Tri-Phenyl Phosphate: (C6H5O)3PO

Tributyl phosphate: (CH3[CH2]3O)3PO

Tributyl phosphate: C12H27O4P

Trimethyl phosphite: (CH3O)3P

Triorthocresyl phosphate: (CH3C6H40)3PO

Citric acid’s Production

Citric Acid is colourless crystals or a white, crystalline powder. Very soluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol, sparingly soluble in ether. Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in citrus fruits. It is a good, natural preservative and is also used to add an acidic (sour) taste to foods and soft drinks. In biochemistry, it is important as an intermediate in the citric acid cycle and therefore occurs in the metabolism of almost all the living organisms. It also serves as an environmentally friendly cleaning agent and acts as an antioxidant.

Citric acid(CAS.NO:77-92-9) exists in a variety of fruits and vegetables, but it is most concentrated in lemons and limes, where it can comprise as much as 8% of the dry weight of the fruit.

Citric acid’s chemical formula is C6H8O7 . Its structure is reflected in its exact chemical name 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid. The acidity of citric acid results from the three carboxyl groups COOH which can lose a proton in solution. If this happens, the resulting ion is the citrate ion. Citrates make excellent buffers for controlling the pH of acidic solutions. Citrate ions form salts called citrates with many metal ions.

Next is the production process of Citric acid

Step 1 : Fermentation

The Aspergillus Niger fungus converts the sugars in the molasses in about one week into raw citric acid at a temperature of between 25 and 35 ˚C.
This is a surface fermentation taking place in trays in fermentation rooms.

Step 2 : Isolation

Fermentation is followed by filtration, removing all solid impurities from the fermentation liquid.

Next, the citric acid is isolated as calciumcitrate by adding lime to it.

This precipitate is afterwards dissolved by adding sulphuric acid, producing gypsum and citric acid in solution.

Step 3 : Purification

A further purification and decolouration takes place by means of an ion transfer and activated carbon.

Next, the remaining water is evaporated, crystallising the pure citric acid.

By carrying out the evaporation at different temperatures the various product forms are created.

Step 4 : Conditioning

By sieving the crystallised citric acid, granulates are brought about having a grain size of between 75 and 1200 µm, as specified by the customer.
The product is shipped or transported to customers in variously sized bags or in tankers.

Step 5 : Valorisation

During isolation co-products emerge in addition to raw citric acid, and they are all re-used. They are used as feed, fertiliser, filling agent or a filter medium.

Food preservatives

Preservatives are a type of food additive added to food to prolong shelf life and keep the products from being broken down by microorganisms (yummy). Mold, bacteria, and yeast can cause food spoilage and are found practically everywhere (including the air we breathe). And these modern additions have certainly made an impact. In fact, some researchers believe preservatives have changed eating habits and food production patterns more than any other type food additive . Before running to the pantry to look at what preservatives are listed on those yummy snack packs, let’s highlight some of the preservatives to keep an eye out for.

Food preservatives are substances ‘that are added to food items in order to inhibit, retard or arrest the process of fermentation, acidification, and decomposition of food items’. Or, in other words, preservatives in food help keep the food safe, without spoiling, for longer.
Food preservatives are classified as:

Class I preservatives or the natural preservatives such as salt, sugar, vinegar, syrup, spices, honey and edible oil; and

Class II preservatives or the chemical preservatives such as benzoates,Sorbic acid Salt, nitrites and nitrates of sodium or potassium, sulfites, glutamates, glycerides and the like.
Both, natural and chemical preservatives are categorized into 3 types:

Antimicrobials that destroy or delay the growth of bacteria, yeast and molds. E.g. nitrites and nitrates prevent botulism in meat products. Sulfur dioxide prevents further degradation in fruits, wine and beer. Benzoates and sorbates are anti-fungals used in jams, salads, cheese and pickles.

Anti-oxidants that slow or stop the breakdown of fats and oils in food that happens in the presence of oxygen(Oxidation) leading to rancidity. Examples of anti-oxidants include BHT, BHA, TBHQ, and propyl gallate.

Anti-enzymatic preservatives that block the enzymatic processes such as ripening occurring in foodstuffs even after harvest. E.g. Erythorbic acid and citric acid stop the action of enzyme phenolase that leads to a brown color on the exposed surface of cut fruits or potato.

Although preservatives can extend the shelf life of food, but most preservatives is harmful to our body, we should try to avoid eating foods containing preservatives.

Compounds: Phthalic anhydride

Phthalic anhydride is  colourless, aromatic chemical solid, which forms needle shaped crystals. The chemical starts to solve at a temperature of 131°degrees and changes over to gas state at 256° degrees. The majority of phthalic anhydride is used for the production and plasticizers, especially PVC.

1. Identification

Name:Phthalic anhydride


Molecular Formula:C8H4O3

CAS Registry Number:85-44-9

Synonyms:2,5-Isobenzofurandione; Phthalic anhydride 99+ %; 2-benzofuran-1,3-dione


Appearance:white crystalline solid with choking odour

Molecular Weight:148.12


Boiling Point:284℃

Melting Point:129-132℃

Flash Point:152℃

Storage Temperature:Store at RT.

Refractive index:1.646

Solubility:0.62 g/100g reacts slowly in water

Stability:Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases, moisture, strong acids. Dust may form an explosive mixture with air.
2. Safety Information

Hazard Codes:  Xn

Risk Statements : 22-37/38-41-42/43

Safety Statements : 23-24/25-26-37/39-46-22

RIDADR:  2214

WGK Germany:  1

RTECS:  TI3150000

F : 10-21

HazardClass : 8

PackingGroup : III

Hazardous Substances Data: 85-44-9(Hazardous Substances Data)
3. Phthalic anhydride Usage And Synthesis
Chemical Properties: white crystalline solid with choking odour
General Description: A colorless to white lustrous solid in the form of needles with a mild distinctive odor. Moderately toxic by inhalation or ingestion and a skin irritant. Melting point 64°F Flash point 305°F. Forms a corrosive solution when mixed with water. Used in the manufacture of materials such as artificial resins.
Air & Water Reactions: Reacts, usually slowly with water to form phthalic acid and heat . The phthalic acid is somewhat soluble in water.
Reactivity Profile: Phthalic anhydride reacts exothermically with water. The reactions are sometimes slow, but can become violent when local heating accelerates their rate. Acids accelerate the reaction with water. Incompatible with acids, strong oxidizing agents, alcohols, amines, and bases. Undergoes exothmeric nitration with fuming nitric acid-sulfuric acid and may give mixtures of the potentially explosive phthaloyl nitrates or nitrites or their nitro derivatives . Phthalic anhydride reacts violently with CuO at elevated temperatures . Mixtures of Phthalic anhydride and anhydrous CO2 explode violently if heated

Health Hazard: Solid irritates skin and eyes, causing coughing and sneezing. Liquid causes severe thermal burns.
Fire Hazard: Combustible material: may burn but does not ignite readily. Substance will react with water (some violently) releasing flammable, toxic or corrosive gases and runoff. When heated, vapors may form explosive mixtures with air: indoors, outdoors and sewers explosion hazards. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated or if contaminated with water.