Intro to Ethylene glycol

Ethylene glycol  is an organic compound primarily used as a raw material in the manufacture of polyester fibers and fabric industry, and polyethylene terephthalate resins (PET) used in bottling. A small percent is also used in industrial applications like antifreeze formulations and other industrial products. It is an odorless, colorless, syrupy, sweet-tasting liquid. Ethylene glycol is only weakly toxic, but cases of poisonings are not uncommon.

Ethylene glycol is a chemical commonly used in many commercial and industrial applications including antifreeze and coolant.  Ethylene glycol helps keep your car’s engine from freezing in the winter and acts as a coolant to reduce overheating in the summer. Other important uses of ethylene glycol include heat transfer fluids used as industrial coolants for gas compressors, heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems, and ice skating rinks.

Ethylene glycol also is used as a raw material in the production of a wide range of products including polyester fibers for clothes, upholstery, carpet and pillows; fiberglass used in products such as jet skis, bathtubs, and bowling balls; and polyethylene terephthalate resin used in packaging film and bottles.  Many of these products are energy saving and cost efficient as well as recyclable.

Ethylene glycol breaks down in air in about ten days, and in water or soil in a few weeks. It enters the environment through the disposal of ethylene glycol-containing products, especially at airports where it is used in deicing agents for runways and airplanes. It has been linked as a teratogen in certain species of birds.

Name:Ethylene glycol

IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol


Molecular Formula:C2H6O2

CAS Registry Number:107-21-1


HS Code:29053100

Appearance:clear viscous liquid

Molecular Weight:62.07

Density:1.220 g/mL at 25°C

Boiling Point:196-198°C

Melting Point:-13°C

Flash Point:116°C

Storage Temperature:2-8°C

Refractive index:1.43-1.433


Stability:Stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions.

Usage:Automotive antifreeze, solvent, adjuvant.

Chemical Properties:clear viscous liquid

Usage:Reagent typically used in cyclocondensation reactions with aldehydes1 and ketones1,2 to form 1,3-dioxolanes.

General Description:Ethylene glycol is a clear, colorless syrupy liquid. The primary hazard is the threat to the environment. Immediate steps should be taken to limit its spread to the environment. Since Ethylene glycol is a liquid Ethylene glycol can easily penetrate the soil and contaminate groundwater and nearby streams.

Reactivity Profile:Mixing Ethylene glycol in equal molar portions with any of the following substances in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase: chlorosulfonic acid, oleum, sulfuric acid.
Health Hazard:Inhalation of vapor is not hazardous. Ingestion causes stupor or coma, sometimes leading to fatal kidney injury.

Fire Hazard:Ethylene glycol is combustible.

Some Basic Information About Hydrogen peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the simplest peroxide (a compound with an oxygen-oxygen single bond). It is also a strong oxidizer. Hydrogen peroxide is a clear liquid, slightly more viscous than water. In dilute solution, it appears colorless. Due to its oxidizing properties, hydrogen peroxide is often used as a bleach or cleaning agent. The oxidizing capacity of hydrogen peroxide is so strong that it is considered a highly reactive oxygen species. Concentrated hydrogen peroxide, or ‘high-test peroxide’, is therefore used as a propellant in rocketry. Organisms also naturally produce hydrogen peroxide as a by-product of oxidative metabolism. Consequently, nearly all living things (specifically, all obligate and facultative aerobes) possess enzymes known as catalase peroxidases, which harmlessly and catalytically decompose low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.

Hydrogen peroxide is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen. Its chemical description is H2O2. In high concentrations, it can be unstable and even poisonous. In lower concentrations, such as the types found in many homes, it works well as a disinfectant and antiseptic.

Name:Hydrogen peroxide


Molecular Formula:H2O2

CAS Registry Number:7722-84-1

Synonyms:Hydrogen Peroxide 30% solution; hydrogen peroxide 35%; Hydrogen peroxide solution; Hydrogen peroxide 100 volumes


Appearance:colourless liquid.

Molecular Weight:34.01

Density:1.13 g/mL at 20℃

Boiling Point:108°C

Melting Point:-33°C

Flash Point:107°C

Storage Temperature:2-8°C

Refractive index:1.3350

Solubility:Infinitely soluble.

Stability:Slightly unstable – will very slowly decompose. Decomposition is promoted by catalysts and heating, so store cool. Light sensitive, keep in the dark. May contain stabilizer. Reacts with rust, brass, zinc, nickel, finely powdered metals, copper and iron and their alloys.

Usage:Microbiocide, fungicide, herbicide, rodenticide, reducing agent, bleaching agent.

Chemical Properties:colourless liquid

General Description:A colorless liquid dissolved in water. Vapors may irritate the eyes and mucous membranes. May violently decompose on contact with most common metals and their compounds. Contact with combustible material may result in spontaneous ignition. Corrosive to tissue. Under exposure to fire or heat containers may violently rupture due to decomposition. Used to bleach textiles and wood pulp, in chemical manufacturing, food processing, and in water purification.

Air & Water Reactions:Water soluble.

Reactivity Profile:The hazards associated with the use of Hydrogen Peroxide (especially highly concentrated solutions) are well documented. There is a release of enough energy during the catalytic decomposition of 65% peroxide to evaporate all water and ignite nearby combustible materials. Most cellulose materials contain enough catalyst to cause spontaneous ignition with 90% peroxide. Contamination of concentrated peroxide causes the possibility of explosion. Readily oxidizable materials, or alkaline substances containing heavy metals may react violently. Solvents(acetone, ethanol, glycerol) will detonate on mixture with peroxide of over 30% concentration, the violence increasing with concentration. Concentrated peroxide may decompose violently in contact with iron, copper, chromium, and most other metals or their salts, and dust(which frequently contain rust). During concentration under vacuum of aqueous or of aqueous-alcoholic solutions of hydrogen peroxide, violent explosions occurred when the concentration was sufficiently high(>90%). Hydrogen selenide and hydrogen peroxide undergo a very rapid decomposition.

Health Hazard:Toxic; inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors, dusts or substance may cause severe injury, burns or death. Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases. Toxic fumes or dust may accumulate in confined areas (basement, tanks, hopper/tank cars, etc.). Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.
Fire Hazard:May explode from friction, heat or contamination. These substances will accelerate burning when involved in a fire. May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Some will react explosively with hydrocarbons (fuels). Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard.

Intro to the Properties Of Ferric oxide

Ferric oxide(also called  Iron(III) oxide) is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3. It is one of the three main oxides of iron, the other two being iron(II) oxide (FeO), which is rare, and iron(II,III) oxide (Fe3O4), which also occurs naturally as the mineral magnetite. As the mineral known as hematite, Fe2O3 is the main source of the iron for the steel industry. Fe2O3 is ferromagnetic, dark red, and readily attacked by acids. Iron(III) oxide is often called rust, and to some extent this label is useful, because rust shares several properties and has a similar composition. To a chemist, rust is considered an ill-defined material, described as hydrated ferric oxide.

The red or black oxide of iron Fe2O3 found in nature as hematite and as rust and also obtained synthetically and used especially in magnetic materials, as a pigment, and for polishing.

1. Properties

Name:Ferric oxide


Molecular Formula:Fe2O3

CAS Registry Number:1309-37-1 

Appearance:red to reddish-brown powder

Molecular Weight:159.70


Melting Point:1538 °C

Flash Point:>230°F



2. Safe Information

Hazard Codes: Xi

Risk Statements:36/37/38

Safety Statements:26



3. Reactions

The most important reaction is its carbothermal reduction, which gives iron used in steel-making:

2 Fe2O3 + 3 C → 4 Fe + 3 CO2

Another redox reaction is the extremely exothermic thermite reaction with aluminium.

2 Al + Fe2O3 → 2 Fe + Al2O3

This process is used to weld thick metals such as rails of train tracks by using a ceramic container to funnel the molten iron in between two sections of rail. Thermite is also used in weapons and making small-scale cast-iron sculptures and tools.

Partial reduction with hydrogen at about 400 °C gives magnetite, a black magnetic material that contains both Fe(III) and Fe(II):

3 Fe2O3 + H2 → 2 Fe3O4 + H2O

Ferric oxide is insoluble in water [needs citatation] but dissolves readily in strong acid, e.g. hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. It also dissolves well in solutions of the chelating agents such as EDTA and oxalic acid.

Heating iron(III) oxides with other metal oxides or carbonates yields materials known as ferrates:

ZnO + Fe2O3 → Zn(FeO2)2

4. Preparation

Ferric oxide is a product of the oxidation of iron. It can be prepared in the laboratory by electrolyzing a solution of sodium bicarbonate, an inert electrolyte, with an iron anode:

4 Fe + 3 O2 + 2 H2O → 4 FeO(OH)

The resulting hydrated iron(III) oxide, written here as Fe(O)OH, dehydrates around 200 °C.

2 FeO(OH) → Fe2O3 + H2O

It can also be prepared by the thermal decomposition of iron (III) hydroxide under temperature above 200 °C.

2 Fe(OH)3 → Fe2O3 + 3H2O

Intro to the Phosphoric acid

Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) acid having the chemical formula H3PO4. Orthophosphoric acid molecules can combine with themselves to form a variety of compounds which are also referred to as phosphoric acids, but in a more general way. The term phosphoric acid can also refer to a chemical or reagent consisting of phosphoric acids, such as pyrophosphoric acid or triphosphoric acid, but usually orthophosphoric acid.

There are two distinct kinds of orthophosphoric acid, based on the method of preparation. They are known as thermal phosphoric acid and wet phosphoric acid.

Thermal phosphoric acid: This very pure phosphoric acid is obtained by burning elemental phosphorus to produce phosphorus pentoxide and dissolving the product in dilute phosphoric acid. This is the cleanest way of producing phosphoric acid, since most impurities present in the rock have been removed when extracting phosphorus from the rock in a furnace. The end result is food grade, thermal phosphoric acid; however, for critical applications additional processing to remove arsenic compounds may be needed.

Wet phosphoric acid: Green phosphoric acid is prepared by adding sulfuric acid to calcium phosphate rock, or slurry. The reaction for calcium phosphate slurry is:

3H2SO4(aq) + Ca3(PO4)2(aq) + 6H2O(l) ↔ 2H3PO4(aq) + 3CaSO4(aq)+ 6H2O(l)

Through modern filtering techniques the wet process acid can be cleaned up significantly but still isn’t as pure as thermal phosphoric acid; as it may contain other acidic species such as hydrofluoric acid.
Name:Phosphoric acid


Molecular Formula:H3PO4

CAS Registry Number:7664-38-2 

Synonyms:Orthophosphoric acid; PA


Appearance:Clear liquid

Molecular Weight:97.99

Density:1.685 g/mL at 25℃ (lit.)

Boiling Point:158℃

Melting Point:21℃

Storage Temperature:Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Keep away from metals. Corrosives area. Do not store in metal containers.

Refractive index:n20/D 1.433


Stability:Stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions.

Chemical Properties:Clear liquid

Usage:Phosphorous acid is used for reaction with inorganic and organic products, for water treatment, industrial and agricultural uses. It is also used to bleach industrial and cleaning supplies.

General Description:A clear colorless liquid or transparent crystalline solid. The pure solid melts at 42.35°C and has a density of 1.834 g / cm3. Liquid is usually an 85% aqueous solution. Shipped as both a solid and liquid. Corrosive to metals and tissue. Used in making fertilizers and detergents and in food processing.
Air & Water Reactions: Soluble in water with small release of heat.

Reactivity Profile: Phosphorous acid reacts exothermically with bases. May react with active metals, including such structural metals as aluminum and iron, to release hydrogen, a flammable gas. Can initiate the polymerization of certain classes of organic compounds. Reacts with cyanide compounds to release gaseous hydrogen cyanide. May generate flammable and/or toxic gases in contact with dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, nitriles, sulfides, and strong reducing agents. Forms explosive mixture with nitromethane. Reacts violently with sodium tetrahydroborate. In the presence of chlorides can corrode stainless steel to form explosive hydrogen gas. Emits toxic and irritating fumes of oxides of phosphorus when heated to decomposition.

Health Hazard: Burns on mouth and lips, sour acrid taste, severe gastrointestinal irritation, nausea, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, difficult swallowing, severe abdominal pains, thirst, acidemia, difficult breathing, convulsions, collapse, shock, death.

Fire Hazard: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.

Methomyl Health Knowledge

Methomyl is a carbamate insecticide. It was introduced in 1966, but its use is restricted because of its high toxicity to humans. Its current primary use is on alfalfa for forage. The EU and UK have imposed these restrictions by allowing a maximum pesticide residue limit of 0.02 mg/kg for apples and oranges. 0.02 mg/kg is the limit of detection.

Chemical poisoning — Methomyl: Methomyl is a carbamate pesticide used mainly as an insecticide. Ingestion and other exposures to the chemical can cause various symptoms. The type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the amount of chemical involved and the nature of the exposure. The chemical may be absorbed through the skin.

1. Description of first aid measures 
1)General advice

Consult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.

2)If inhaled

If breathed in, move person into fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. Consult a physician.

3)In case of skin contact

Wash off with soap and plenty of water. Take victim immediately to hospital. Consult a physician.

4)In case of eye contact

Flush eyes with water as a precaution.

5)If swallowed

Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Rinse mouth with water. Consult a physician

2. Environmental precautions 

Prevent further leakage or spillage if safe to do so. Do not let product enter drains. Discharge into the environment must be avoided.

3. Personal protective equipment 

1)Eye/face protection

Face shield and safety glasses Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU).

2)Skin protection

Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique (without touching glove’s outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands.

3)Body Protection

Complete suit protecting against chemicals, The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace.

4)Respiratory protection

Where risk assessment shows air-purifying respirators are appropriate use a full-face particle respirator type N100 (US) or type P3 (EN 143) respirator cartridges as a backup to engineering controls. If the respirator is the sole means of protection, use a full-face supplied air respirator. Use respirators and components tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or CEN (EU).

Some basic question about Rifampicin

Rifampicin is a prescription medication antibiotic that is primarily used to treat a medical condition known as tuberculosis, although it may also be used to treat other bacterial infections. Available in the form of a tablet, liquid, or injection, this drug works by destroying bacteria responsible for infection. Some of the most frequently reported side effects of rifampicin include discoloration of bodily fluids, nausea, and headaches. More serious complications stemming from the use of rifampicin may include intestinal inflammation, liver damage, or allergic reactions. A doctor should be consulted with any specific questions or concerns about the use of rifampicin in an individual situation.

1. How should this medicine be used?

Rifampin(CAS.NO:13292-46-1) comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It should be taken with a full glass of water on an empty stomach, 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal. When rifampin is used to treat tuberculosis, it is taken once daily. When rifampin is used to prevent the spread of Neisseria meningitidis bacteria to other people, it is taken twice daily for two days. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take rifampin exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you cannot swallow the capsules. Your pharmacist can prepare a liquid for you to take instead.

If you are taking rifampin to treat tuberculosis, your doctor may tell you to take rifampin for several months or longer. Continue to take rifampin until you finish the prescription even if you feel better, and be careful not to miss doses. If you stop taking rifampin too soon, your infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics. If you miss doses of rifampin, you may develop uncomfortable or serious symptoms when you begin to take the medication again.

2. What should I do if I forget a dose?

Do not miss doses of rifampin. Missing doses may increase the risk that you will experience serious side effects. If you do miss a dose, take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and call your doctor. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.

3. What should I know about storage and disposal of this medication?

Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.

4. What is the Interaction with other medications

It is important to inform the person prescribing you rifampicin if you are taking any of the following prescription drugs: anticoagulants such as warfarin, steroids, several drugs for heart disease, tablets to control diabetes, tablets for epilepsy, tablets for asthma, methadone, antiviral agents, antidepressants and cyclosporin. The dosage of these medications may need to be adjusted while you are taking rifampicin.

5. Can Rifampicin reduce the effectiveness of contraceptives. 

Women taking the oral contraceptive pill or using progestogen only contraceptives, including implants, should use additional barrier contraception such as condoms while taking rifampicin and for 4 weeks after the last dose of rifampicin. The oral contraception should continue to be taken, however any pill-free or sugar pill days should be omitted while taking rifampicin and for 7 days after the last dose.

How can you buy the medicine of Naproxen online?

Naproxen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for the management of mild to moderate pain, fever and inflammation. This drug is quite similar to ibuprofen, indomethacin and nabumetone, amongst others. It can be used to treat a variety of conditions, including swelling, arthritis, tendonitis, gout, menstrual cramps, and bursitis. You may need a prescription in order to get Naproxen for your condition. Work with your doctor to determine if Naproxen is right for you.

Naproxen was originally marketed as the prescription drug Naprosyn by Syntex in 1976, and naproxen sodium was first marketed under the trade name Anaprox in 1980. It remains a prescription-only drug in much of the world. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved its use as an over-the-counter (OTC) drug in 1994; OTC preparations in the U.S. are mainly marketed by Bayer HealthCare under the trade name Aleve and generic store brand formulations in 220 mg tablets. In Australia, packets of 275 mg tablets of naproxen sodium are Schedule 2 pharmacy medicines, with a maximum daily dose of five tablets or 1375 mg. In the United Kingdom, 250-mg tablets of naproxen were approved for OTC sale under the brand name Feminax Ultra in 2008, for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea in women aged 15 to 50. In the Netherlands, 220mg and 275mg tablets are available OTC in drugstores, 550mg is OTC only at pharmacists. Aleve became available over-the-counter in most provinces in Canada on 14 July 2009, but not British Columbia, Quebec or Newfoundland and Labrador; it became available OTC in British Columbia in late January 2010.

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