Magnesium stearate Information

Magnesium stearate is a white substance, solid at room temperature, used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical and supplement tablets and capsules. It is composed of magnesium and stearic acid, and oftentimes, palmitic acid as well.

The IUPAC name of Magnesium stearate is magnesium octadecanoate. With the CAS registry number 557-04-0, it is also named as Octadecanoic acid, magnesium salt. The product’s category is Cosmetic Ingredients & Chemicals. It is white powder which is soluble in hot ethanol solution and insoluble in water. In addition, this chemical has good skin adhesion and lubricity. Besides, it should be sealed in the container and stored in the cool and dry place.

1. Characteristics of Magnesium Stearate

Name:Magnesium Stearate

EINECS:209-150-3

Molecular Formula:2(C18H35O2)?Mg

CAS Registry Number:557-04-0

Synonyms:Octadecanoic acid magnesium salt; dibasicmagnesiumstearate; Dolomol; magnesiumdistearate; Magnesiumstearatemedicinal; petracmg20nf; stearatedemagnesium; MAGNESIUM OCTADECANOATE

InChI:InChI=1/2C18H36O2.Mg/c2*1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18(19)20;/h2*2-17H2,1H3,(H,19,20);/q;;+2/p-2

HS Code:29157030

Appearance:White powder

Molecular Weight:591.25

Density:1.07

Boiling Point:359.4°Cat760mmHg

Melting Point:130-140℃

Flash Point:162.4°C

Storage Temperature:Store at RT.

Refractive index:1.45 (25 C)

Solubility:Insoluble in water

Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.

Usage:In baby dusting powders.
2. Preparation of Magnesium stearate
It can be obtained by magnesium sulfate and sodium stearate which is prepared by sodium hydroxide and stearic acid.
C17H35COOH+NaOH→C17H35COONa+H2O
2C17H35COONa+MgSO4→Mg[CH3(CH2)16COO)]2+Na2SO4
3. Uses of Magnesium stearate
It often used as a diluent in the manufacture of medical tablets, capsules and powders. It is not only used to bind sugar in hard candies, but also used as a heat stabilizer of PVC, lubricating agent of ABS, amino resins, phenolic resins and urea formaldehyde resin. In addition, it is a common ingredient in baby formulas. Besides, tis chemical can used in the powder products to enhance adhesion and lubrication.
When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following:
It is irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. If you want to contact this product, you must wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

Compounds: Butyl acetate

Butyl acetate, also called as Acetic acid, n-butyl ester, is a colourless flammable liquid with medium volatility and a characteristic fruity ester odor. The substance is an organic compound with the formula C6H12O2. Butyl acetate has the CAS registry number of 123-86-4 and EINECS registry number of 204-658-1. It is stable but incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids and strong bases. The substance is toxic to lungs, the nervous system, mucous membranes.

Properties: Butyl acetate has excellent solvency characteristics for polymers, resins, oils and cellulose nitrate and is miscible with all common organic solvents, such as alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, glycols, ethers, glycol ethers and aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Butyl acetate is relatively difficult to dissolve in water compared with other lower homologue. Butyl acetate is an ester which reacts with acids to liberate heat along with alcohols and acids.

Butyl acetate heated with benzene in the presense of aluminum oxide to generate butylbenzene. Catalyzed by aluminum oxide at the temperature of 300-350 °C, it will generate chlorobutane, iso-butyl chloride and so on. It can also cause reaction of alcoholysis, ammonolysis, interesterification.

Name:Butyl acetate

EINECS:204-658-1

Molecular Formula:C6H12O2

CAS Registry Number:123-86-4

Synonyms:acetic acid butyl ester;n-butyl acetate;butyl ethanoate

InChI:InChI=1/C6H12O2/c1-3-4-5-8-6(2)7/h3-5H2,1-2H3

Molecular Structure:Butyl acetate C6H12O2 (cas 123-86-4) Molecular Structure

Appearance:colourless liquid with a fruity odor

Molecular Weight:116.16

Density:0.88

Boiling Point:127°C

Melting Point:-77.9°C

Flash Point:22°C

Storage Temperature:Flammables area

Refractive index:1.393-1.395

Solubility:0.7 g/100 mL (20 °C) in water

Stability:Stable. Flammable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, strong bases.
Chemical Properties: colourless liquid with a fruity odour
General Description: A clear colorless liquid with a fruity odor. Flash point 72 – 88°F. Density 7.4 lb / gal (less than water). Hence floats on water. Vapors heavier than air.
Air & Water Reactions: Highly flammable. Very slightly soluble in water.
Reactivity Profile: Butyl acetate is an ester. Esters react with acids to liberate heat along with alcohols and acids. Strong oxidizing acids may cause a vigorous reaction that is sufficiently exothermic to ignite the reaction products. Heat is also generated by the interaction of esters with caustic solutions. Flammable hydrogen is generated by mixing esters with alkali metals and hydrides. Attacks many plastics.
Health Hazard:
Skin: prolonged or frequently repeated exposures may lead to drying.
Inhalation: headaches, dizziness, nausea, irritation of respiratory passages and eyes.
Fire Hazard: Highly flammable: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.
Preparation: Butyl acetate is commonly manufactured by acetic acid with the presence of catalytic sulfuric acid under reflux conditions, which can be called as Fischer esterification of a butanol isomer. Add acetic acid, butanol and sulfuric acid into the bottom of esterification reactors to react at the tempreature around 120 °C.
CH3COOH + CH3(CH2)3OH [H2SO4] → CH3COO(CH2)3CH3
Uses: Butyl acetate can be used in coatings, coatings for plastic, nail care, leather industry and as cosmetic / personal care solvent, fragrance solvent, extraction solvent, pharmaceuticals and cleaners. In addition, it is used as a solvent in the production of lacquers and other products. Butyl acetate is also used as a synthetic fruit flavoring in foods such as candy, ice cream, cheeses, and baked goods. It is also applied to prepare perfume. In pharmaceutical industry, it is used as extractant. Butyl acetate is an azeotrope former with good ability to carry water. It is often used to condense some weak solution to reduce energy consumption.
When you are using Butyl acetate, you should be very cautious about it. It is flammable. And if repeated exposure, it may cause skin dryness or cracking. Moreover, its vapour may cause drowsiness and dizziness. You should avoid contact with eyes.

What’s Glutaric dialdehyde?

Glutaraldehyde is an organic compound with the formula CH2(CH2CHO)2. A pungent colorless oily liquid, glutaraldehyde is used to disinfect medical and dental equipment. It is also used for industrial water treatment and as a preservative. It is mainly available as an aqueous solution, and in these solutions the aldehyde groups are hydrated.
1. Description
It is colorless or yellowish bright liquid with slight irritating odor; soluble in water, ether and ethanol.
It is active, can be easily polymerized and oxidized, and it is an excellent cross-linking agent for protein.
It also has excellent sterilizing properties.
It is a liquid intermediate, and can be in industrial water treatment, biocides, leather tanning, etc.
be used for system disinfection and as a preservative for long term storage
2. Characteristics and applications 
Glutaraldehyde is colorless or yellowish clear and bright liquid with slight irritating smell, and can be dissolved in organic dissolvent such as water, ether and ethanol.
In water solution, Glutaraldehyde doesn’t exist much in free state; instead, Glutaraldehyde makes appearance as hydrates with different forms.and most of them are hydrates with annular structure.
Glutaraldehyde is reactive in property, and liable to polymerize and oxidize, which will react with compounds containing active oxygen and nitrogen. The reaction of the product with protein is mainly carried out between the carbonyl group of the former and the amino group of the latter. Among the known aldehydes, the product is one of the best cross-linking agents for proteins.
Glutaraldehyde has a small influence on the activity of enzyme, and most of enzymes can be fixed under controlled condition, to cross-link without losing their activity. Contrbuting to its outstanding characteristics, the product has drawn special concern from people and been put at broad application.
3.  Usage
It is widely used for oil production, medical care, bio-chemical, leather treatment, tanning agents, protein cross-linking agent; in the preparation of heterocyclic compounds; also used for plastics, adhesives, fuels, perfumes, textile, paper making, printing; corrosion prevention of instruments and cosmetics etc. It is widely used for oil production, medical care, bio-chemical, leather treatment, tanning agents, protein cross-linking agent; in the preparation of heterocyclic compounds; also used for plastics, adhesives, fuels, perfumes, textile, paper making, printing; corrosion prevention of instruments and cosmetics etc
4. Storage / transportion 
Glutaraldehyde 50% has a shelf life of 12 months in unopened, original containers and kept below 25ºC. Ensure thorough ventilation of stores and work areas. Avoid aerosol formation and keep under inert gas.

Introduction to the properties of 1-Bromopropane

1-Bromopropane with CAS number of 106-94-5 is also named as Bromopropane .It is an organic solvent used for the cleaning of metal surfaces, removal of soldering residues from electronic circuit boards, and as an adhesive solvent. It has quite a potent smell. 1-Bromopropane is an organic solvent used for the cleaning of metal surfaces, removal of soldering residues from electronic circuit boards, and as an adhesive solvent. It has a characteristic hydrocarbon odor.
1. Use of 1-Bromopropane
1-Bromopropane is used as alkylating agents to introduce the alkyl groups to form carbon-carbon bonds in organic synthesis. They are also used as intermediate to form alkylated amines and alkylated metallic compounds. The end products include pharmaceuticals, insecticides, quaternary ammonium compounds, flavours and fragrances.
1-Bromopropane is also used as solvent for industrial cleaning (degreasing, metal processing and finishing, electronics, aerospace and aviation), aerosols, textiles, adhesives , inks and coatings.
2. Properties of 1-Bromopropane
Name:1-Bromopropane

EINECS:203-445-0

Molecular Formula:C3H7Br

CAS Registry Number:106-94-5 

Synonyms:n-Propyl bromide; Bromopropane,98%; 1-bromo-propan; 1-Brompropan; bromo propane; Bromopropane; Brompropan; n-C3H7Br; n-propyl; n-propylbromide(1-bromopropane); Propyl bromide

InChI:InChI=1/C3H7Br/c1-2-3-4/h2-3H2,1H3

HS Code:29033036

Appearance:Colorless transparent liquid

Molecular Weight:122.99

Density:1.353

Boiling Point:71℃

Melting Point:-110℃

Flash Point:-4.5℃

Storage Temperature:Flammables area

Refractive index:1.4326-1.4346

Solubility:2.5 g/L (20 oC)

Stability:Stability Flammable – note low flash point. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases.
Usage:Use is as a solvent, generally for fats, waxes, or resins, or as an intermediate in the synthesis of other compounds.
Chemical Properties: colourless liquid
General Description: A colorless liquid. Slightly denser than water and slightly soluble in water. Flash point below 75°F. When heated to high temperatures may emit toxic fumes.
Air & Water Reactions: Highly flammable. Slightly soluble in water.
Reactivity Profile: Halogenated aliphatic compounds, such as 2-Bromopropane, are moderately or very reactive. Reactivity generally decreases with increased degree of substitution of halogen for hydrogen atoms. Low molecular weight haloalkanes are highly flammable and can react with some metals to form dangerous products. Materials in this group are incompatible with strong oxidizing and reducing agents. Also, they are incompatible with many amines, nitrides, azo/diazo compounds, alkali metals, and epoxides. Emits toxic fumes of bromine when burned.
Health Hazard: Irritating to the eyes, nose, throat, upper respiratory tract, and skin.
3. Safety Information of 1-Bromopropane

Hazard Codes: F,T

Risk Statements: 60-11-36/37/38-48/20-63-67

60: May impair fertility

11: Highly Flammable

36/37/38: Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin

48/20: Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation

63: Possible risk of harm to the unborn child

67: Vapors may cause drowsiness and dizziness

Safety Statements: 53-45

53: Avoid exposure – obtain special instruction before use

45: In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible)

RIDADR: UN 2344 3/PG 2

WGK Germany: 2

F: 8: Photosensitive.

HazardClass: 3

PackingGroup: II

HS Code: 29033036

Sodium pyrophosphate anhydrous

Sodium pyrophosphate anhydrous, also called sodium pyrophosphate, tetrasodium phosphate or TSPP, is a colorless transparent crystalline chemical compound with the formula Na4P2O7. It is a salt composed of pyrophosphate and sodium ions. Toxicity is approximately twice that of table salt when ingested orally. There is also a hydrated form, Na4P2O7 · 10(H2O).
Sodium pyrophosphate anhydrous is White powder or crystal. Melting point 880℃. Density 2.534g/cm3. Soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. It’s aqueous solution is alkaline and stable below 70℃, hydrolyzes into sodium hydrogen phosphate after boiling. Can form complex with alkaline earth metal ion, liable to deliquesce.
It is applied in industries of detergents as detergent auxiliary, paper production to bleach electroplating; In food industry it is used as buffering agent, emulsifier, nutrition ingredients quality improver
Name:Sodium pyrophosphate anhydrous

EINECS:231-767-1

Molecular Formula:Na4P2O7

CAS Registry Number:7722-88-5 

Synonyms:Sodium pyrophosphate; Tetrasodium pyrophosphate; TSPP; Tetra Sodium Pyrophosphate; Tetrasodium Diphosohate

InChI:InChI=1S/H4O7P2/c1-8(2,3)7-9(4,5)6/h(H2,1,2,3)(H2,4,5,6)

Appearance:white crystalline powder or colourless crystals

Molecular Weight:177.975082

Density:2.53

Boiling Point:93.8 °C

Melting Point:880℃

Storage Temperature:Keep tightly closed in a cool place in a tightly closed container.

Solubility:H2O: 0.1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless

Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
Usage:The active ingredient is no longer contained in any registered products.
Chemical Properties: white crystalline powder or colourless crystals
General Description: Odorless, white powder or granules. Mp: 995°C. Density: 2.53 g cm-3. Solubility in water: 3.16 g / 100 mL (cold water); 40.26 g / 100 mL boiling water. Used as a wool de-fatting agent, in bleaching operations, as a food additive. The related substance Tetrasodium pyrophosphate decahydrate (Na4P2O7 0H2O) occurs as colorless transparent crystals. Loses its water when heated to 93.8°C.
Reactivity Profile: Tetrasodium pyrophosphate is basic. Reacts exothermically with acids. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Decomposes in ethyl alcohol.

 

The History of Captopril

Captopril is an oral drug and a member of a class of drugs called angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Captopril is used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure. It decreases certain chemicals that tighten the blood vessels, so blood flows more smoothly and the heart can pump blood more efficiently.
Captopril(CAS.NO:62571-86-2) was developed in 1975 by three researchers at the U.S. drug company Squibb (now Bristol-Myers Squibb): Miguel Ondetti, Bernard Rubin and David Cushman. Squibb filed for U.S. patent protection on the drug in February 1976 and U.S. Patent 4,046,889 was granted in September 1977. Captopril gained FDA approval on April 6, 1981. The drug went generic in the U.S. in February 1996 as a result of the end of market exclusivity for Bristol-Myers Squibb.

The development of captopril was amongst the earliest successes of the revolutionary concept of ligand-based drug design. The renin-angiontensin-aldosterone system had been extensively studied in the mid-20th century and it had been decided that this system presented several opportune targets in the development of novel treatments for hypertension. The first two targets that were attempted were renin and ACE. Captopril was the culmination of efforts by Squibb’s laboratories to develop an ACE inhibitor.
Ondetti, Cushman and colleagues built on work that had been done in the 1960s by a team of researchers led by John Vane at the Royal College of Surgeons of England. The first breakthrough was made by Kevin K.F. Ng in 1967, when he found the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II took place in the pulmonary circulation instead of in the plasma. In contrast, Sergio Ferreira found bradykinin disappeared in its passage through the pulmonary circulation. The conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II and the inactivation of bradykinin were thought to be mediated by the same enzyme.
In 1970, using bradykinin potentiating factor (BPF) provided by Sergio Ferreira, Ng and Vane found the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II was inhibited during its passage through the pulmonary circulation. BPF was later found to be a peptide in the venom of a lancehead viper (Bothrops jararaca), which was a “collected-product inhibitor” of the converting enzyme. Captopril was developed from this peptide after it was found via QSAR-based modification that the terminal sulfhydryl moiety of the peptide provided a high potency of ACE inhibition.

Captopril gained FDA approval on April 6, 1981. The drug became a generic medicine in the U.S. in February 1996, when the market exclusivity held by Bristol-Myers Squibb for captopril expired.
The development of captopril has been claimed as an instance of ‘biopiracy’ (commercialization of traditional medicines), since no benefits have flowed back to the indigenous Brazilian tribe who first used pit viper venom as an arrowhead poison.

Chemical Properties of Anastrozole

The Anastrozole, with the CAS registry number 120511-73-1,  belongs to the product categories of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients; Antineoplastic; All Inhibitors; Anti-neoplastic; Inhibitors; Intermediates & Fine Chemicals; Pharmaceuticals; Anastrozole. This chemical’s molecular formula is C17H19N5 and molecular weight is 293.37. What’s more, its systematic name is 2,2′-[5-(1H-1,2,4-Triazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-phenylene]bis(2-methylpropanenitrile).

1. Application
Anastrozole (marketed under the trade name Arimidex by AstraZeneca) is a non-steroidal aromatase-inhibiting drug approved for treatment of breast cancer after surgery, as well as for metastasis in both pre and post-menopausal women. The severity of breast cancer can be increased by estrogen, as sex hormones cause hyperplasia, and differentiation at estrogen receptor sites. as well as for metastasis in both pre and post-menopausal women. It is an aromatase inhibitor and it is ued as an antineoplastic.
2. Classification codes
Its classification codes are: (1)Antineoplastic; (2)Antineoplastic Agents; (3)Antineoplastic agents, hormonal; (4)Aromatase Inhibitors; (5)Drug / Therapeutic Agent; (6)Enzyme inhibitors.
3. Physical properties
Name:Anastrozole

Molecular Formula:C17H19N5

CAS Registry Number:120511-73-1 

InChI:InChI=1/C17H19N5/c1-16(2,9-18)14-5-13(8-22-12-20-11-21-22)6-15(7-14)17(3,4)10-19/h5-7,11-12H,8H2,1-4H3

Appearance:crystalline solid

Molecular Weight:293.37

Density:1.08 g/cm3

Boiling Point:469.7 oC at 760 mmHg

Melting Point:81-82℃

Flash Point:469.7 oC at 760 mmHg

Storage Temperature:Store in original container in a cool dark place.

Refractive index:1.791

Solubility:Insoluble

Biological Activity:Potent and highly selective aromatase (CYP19) inhibitor (IC 50 = 15nM) that has no discernible effect on adrenocorticoid hormone synthesis. Reduces plasma estrogen levels and exhibits antitumor activity in vivo . Orally active.

Usage:An aromatase inhibitor. Used as an antineoplastic.
4. Chemical synthesis
The synthesis begins with nucleophilic substitution of two benzylic bromides in α,α’-dibromomesitylene (prepared by radical bromination of mesitylene, not shown on the scheme) with cyanide by treatment with potassium cyanide under phase transfer conditions, affording the dinitrile. Exhaustive methylation with methyl iodide and sodium hydride leads to the replacement of the more acidic side chain hydrogen atoms by methyl groups. The treatment with bromine in the presence of benzoyl peroxide leads to the formation of the corresponding benzyl bromide. Reaction of that product with 1,2,4-triazole in the presence of a base completes the synthesis of the aromatase inhibitor.