Magnesium stearate Information

Magnesium stearate is a white substance, solid at room temperature, used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical and supplement tablets and capsules. It is composed of magnesium and stearic acid, and oftentimes, palmitic acid as well.

The IUPAC name of Magnesium stearate is magnesium octadecanoate. With the CAS registry number 557-04-0, it is also named as Octadecanoic acid, magnesium salt. The product’s category is Cosmetic Ingredients & Chemicals. It is white powder which is soluble in hot ethanol solution and insoluble in water. In addition, this chemical has good skin adhesion and lubricity. Besides, it should be sealed in the container and stored in the cool and dry place.

1. Characteristics of Magnesium Stearate

Name:Magnesium Stearate

EINECS:209-150-3

Molecular Formula:2(C18H35O2)?Mg

CAS Registry Number:557-04-0

Synonyms:Octadecanoic acid magnesium salt; dibasicmagnesiumstearate; Dolomol; magnesiumdistearate; Magnesiumstearatemedicinal; petracmg20nf; stearatedemagnesium; MAGNESIUM OCTADECANOATE

InChI:InChI=1/2C18H36O2.Mg/c2*1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18(19)20;/h2*2-17H2,1H3,(H,19,20);/q;;+2/p-2

HS Code:29157030

Appearance:White powder

Molecular Weight:591.25

Density:1.07

Boiling Point:359.4°Cat760mmHg

Melting Point:130-140℃

Flash Point:162.4°C

Storage Temperature:Store at RT.

Refractive index:1.45 (25 C)

Solubility:Insoluble in water

Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.

Usage:In baby dusting powders.
2. Preparation of Magnesium stearate
It can be obtained by magnesium sulfate and sodium stearate which is prepared by sodium hydroxide and stearic acid.
C17H35COOH+NaOH→C17H35COONa+H2O
2C17H35COONa+MgSO4→Mg[CH3(CH2)16COO)]2+Na2SO4
3. Uses of Magnesium stearate
It often used as a diluent in the manufacture of medical tablets, capsules and powders. It is not only used to bind sugar in hard candies, but also used as a heat stabilizer of PVC, lubricating agent of ABS, amino resins, phenolic resins and urea formaldehyde resin. In addition, it is a common ingredient in baby formulas. Besides, tis chemical can used in the powder products to enhance adhesion and lubrication.
When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following:
It is irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. If you want to contact this product, you must wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.

Compounds: Butyl acetate

Butyl acetate, also called as Acetic acid, n-butyl ester, is a colourless flammable liquid with medium volatility and a characteristic fruity ester odor. The substance is an organic compound with the formula C6H12O2. Butyl acetate has the CAS registry number of 123-86-4 and EINECS registry number of 204-658-1. It is stable but incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids and strong bases. The substance is toxic to lungs, the nervous system, mucous membranes.

Properties: Butyl acetate has excellent solvency characteristics for polymers, resins, oils and cellulose nitrate and is miscible with all common organic solvents, such as alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, glycols, ethers, glycol ethers and aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Butyl acetate is relatively difficult to dissolve in water compared with other lower homologue. Butyl acetate is an ester which reacts with acids to liberate heat along with alcohols and acids.

Butyl acetate heated with benzene in the presense of aluminum oxide to generate butylbenzene. Catalyzed by aluminum oxide at the temperature of 300-350 °C, it will generate chlorobutane, iso-butyl chloride and so on. It can also cause reaction of alcoholysis, ammonolysis, interesterification.

Name:Butyl acetate

EINECS:204-658-1

Molecular Formula:C6H12O2

CAS Registry Number:123-86-4

Synonyms:acetic acid butyl ester;n-butyl acetate;butyl ethanoate

InChI:InChI=1/C6H12O2/c1-3-4-5-8-6(2)7/h3-5H2,1-2H3

Molecular Structure:Butyl acetate C6H12O2 (cas 123-86-4) Molecular Structure

Appearance:colourless liquid with a fruity odor

Molecular Weight:116.16

Density:0.88

Boiling Point:127°C

Melting Point:-77.9°C

Flash Point:22°C

Storage Temperature:Flammables area

Refractive index:1.393-1.395

Solubility:0.7 g/100 mL (20 °C) in water

Stability:Stable. Flammable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids, strong bases.
Chemical Properties: colourless liquid with a fruity odour
General Description: A clear colorless liquid with a fruity odor. Flash point 72 – 88°F. Density 7.4 lb / gal (less than water). Hence floats on water. Vapors heavier than air.
Air & Water Reactions: Highly flammable. Very slightly soluble in water.
Reactivity Profile: Butyl acetate is an ester. Esters react with acids to liberate heat along with alcohols and acids. Strong oxidizing acids may cause a vigorous reaction that is sufficiently exothermic to ignite the reaction products. Heat is also generated by the interaction of esters with caustic solutions. Flammable hydrogen is generated by mixing esters with alkali metals and hydrides. Attacks many plastics.
Health Hazard:
Skin: prolonged or frequently repeated exposures may lead to drying.
Inhalation: headaches, dizziness, nausea, irritation of respiratory passages and eyes.
Fire Hazard: Highly flammable: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.
Preparation: Butyl acetate is commonly manufactured by acetic acid with the presence of catalytic sulfuric acid under reflux conditions, which can be called as Fischer esterification of a butanol isomer. Add acetic acid, butanol and sulfuric acid into the bottom of esterification reactors to react at the tempreature around 120 °C.
CH3COOH + CH3(CH2)3OH [H2SO4] → CH3COO(CH2)3CH3
Uses: Butyl acetate can be used in coatings, coatings for plastic, nail care, leather industry and as cosmetic / personal care solvent, fragrance solvent, extraction solvent, pharmaceuticals and cleaners. In addition, it is used as a solvent in the production of lacquers and other products. Butyl acetate is also used as a synthetic fruit flavoring in foods such as candy, ice cream, cheeses, and baked goods. It is also applied to prepare perfume. In pharmaceutical industry, it is used as extractant. Butyl acetate is an azeotrope former with good ability to carry water. It is often used to condense some weak solution to reduce energy consumption.
When you are using Butyl acetate, you should be very cautious about it. It is flammable. And if repeated exposure, it may cause skin dryness or cracking. Moreover, its vapour may cause drowsiness and dizziness. You should avoid contact with eyes.

What’s Glutaric dialdehyde?

Glutaraldehyde is an organic compound with the formula CH2(CH2CHO)2. A pungent colorless oily liquid, glutaraldehyde is used to disinfect medical and dental equipment. It is also used for industrial water treatment and as a preservative. It is mainly available as an aqueous solution, and in these solutions the aldehyde groups are hydrated.
1. Description
It is colorless or yellowish bright liquid with slight irritating odor; soluble in water, ether and ethanol.
It is active, can be easily polymerized and oxidized, and it is an excellent cross-linking agent for protein.
It also has excellent sterilizing properties.
It is a liquid intermediate, and can be in industrial water treatment, biocides, leather tanning, etc.
be used for system disinfection and as a preservative for long term storage
2. Characteristics and applications 
Glutaraldehyde is colorless or yellowish clear and bright liquid with slight irritating smell, and can be dissolved in organic dissolvent such as water, ether and ethanol.
In water solution, Glutaraldehyde doesn’t exist much in free state; instead, Glutaraldehyde makes appearance as hydrates with different forms.and most of them are hydrates with annular structure.
Glutaraldehyde is reactive in property, and liable to polymerize and oxidize, which will react with compounds containing active oxygen and nitrogen. The reaction of the product with protein is mainly carried out between the carbonyl group of the former and the amino group of the latter. Among the known aldehydes, the product is one of the best cross-linking agents for proteins.
Glutaraldehyde has a small influence on the activity of enzyme, and most of enzymes can be fixed under controlled condition, to cross-link without losing their activity. Contrbuting to its outstanding characteristics, the product has drawn special concern from people and been put at broad application.
3.  Usage
It is widely used for oil production, medical care, bio-chemical, leather treatment, tanning agents, protein cross-linking agent; in the preparation of heterocyclic compounds; also used for plastics, adhesives, fuels, perfumes, textile, paper making, printing; corrosion prevention of instruments and cosmetics etc. It is widely used for oil production, medical care, bio-chemical, leather treatment, tanning agents, protein cross-linking agent; in the preparation of heterocyclic compounds; also used for plastics, adhesives, fuels, perfumes, textile, paper making, printing; corrosion prevention of instruments and cosmetics etc
4. Storage / transportion 
Glutaraldehyde 50% has a shelf life of 12 months in unopened, original containers and kept below 25ºC. Ensure thorough ventilation of stores and work areas. Avoid aerosol formation and keep under inert gas.

Chemical Properties of Anastrozole

The Anastrozole, with the CAS registry number 120511-73-1,  belongs to the product categories of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients; Antineoplastic; All Inhibitors; Anti-neoplastic; Inhibitors; Intermediates & Fine Chemicals; Pharmaceuticals; Anastrozole. This chemical’s molecular formula is C17H19N5 and molecular weight is 293.37. What’s more, its systematic name is 2,2′-[5-(1H-1,2,4-Triazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-phenylene]bis(2-methylpropanenitrile).

1. Application
Anastrozole (marketed under the trade name Arimidex by AstraZeneca) is a non-steroidal aromatase-inhibiting drug approved for treatment of breast cancer after surgery, as well as for metastasis in both pre and post-menopausal women. The severity of breast cancer can be increased by estrogen, as sex hormones cause hyperplasia, and differentiation at estrogen receptor sites. as well as for metastasis in both pre and post-menopausal women. It is an aromatase inhibitor and it is ued as an antineoplastic.
2. Classification codes
Its classification codes are: (1)Antineoplastic; (2)Antineoplastic Agents; (3)Antineoplastic agents, hormonal; (4)Aromatase Inhibitors; (5)Drug / Therapeutic Agent; (6)Enzyme inhibitors.
3. Physical properties
Name:Anastrozole

Molecular Formula:C17H19N5

CAS Registry Number:120511-73-1 

InChI:InChI=1/C17H19N5/c1-16(2,9-18)14-5-13(8-22-12-20-11-21-22)6-15(7-14)17(3,4)10-19/h5-7,11-12H,8H2,1-4H3

Appearance:crystalline solid

Molecular Weight:293.37

Density:1.08 g/cm3

Boiling Point:469.7 oC at 760 mmHg

Melting Point:81-82℃

Flash Point:469.7 oC at 760 mmHg

Storage Temperature:Store in original container in a cool dark place.

Refractive index:1.791

Solubility:Insoluble

Biological Activity:Potent and highly selective aromatase (CYP19) inhibitor (IC 50 = 15nM) that has no discernible effect on adrenocorticoid hormone synthesis. Reduces plasma estrogen levels and exhibits antitumor activity in vivo . Orally active.

Usage:An aromatase inhibitor. Used as an antineoplastic.
4. Chemical synthesis
The synthesis begins with nucleophilic substitution of two benzylic bromides in α,α’-dibromomesitylene (prepared by radical bromination of mesitylene, not shown on the scheme) with cyanide by treatment with potassium cyanide under phase transfer conditions, affording the dinitrile. Exhaustive methylation with methyl iodide and sodium hydride leads to the replacement of the more acidic side chain hydrogen atoms by methyl groups. The treatment with bromine in the presence of benzoyl peroxide leads to the formation of the corresponding benzyl bromide. Reaction of that product with 1,2,4-triazole in the presence of a base completes the synthesis of the aromatase inhibitor.

What’s Sodium Hypochlorite?

Sodium Hypochlorite is a greenish-yellow liquid commonly referred to as “Bleach.”  The Sodium hypochlorite is an organic compound with the formula NaClO. The IUPAC name of this chemical is sodium hypochlorite. it is also named as Hypochlorous acid, sodium salt. The product’s categories are Industrial/Fine Chemicals; Biocide; Hypochlorites; Hypochlorites Essential Chemicals; Oxidation; Reagent Grade; Routine Reagents; Synthetic Reagents. Besides, it has strong odour, which should be stored in a cool and well-ventilated place.
1. Uses of Sodium hypochlorite
In household form, sodium hypochlorite is used for removal of stains from laundry. It is particularly effective on cotton fiber, which stains easily but bleaches well. Sodium hypochlorite has been used for the disinfection of drinking water. In batch treatment operations, sodium hypochlorite has been used to treat more concentrated cyanide wastes, such as silver cyanide plating solutions. Sodium hypochlorite is now used in endodontics during root canal treatments.
2. Physical properties about Sodium hypochlorite
Name:Sodium hypochlorite

EINECS:231-668-3

Molecular Formula:NaClO

CAS Registry Number:7681-52-9 

InChI:InChI=1/ClO.Na/c1-2;/q-1;+1
Appearance:colourless liquid with strong odour

Molecular Weight:74.44

Density:1.25 g/mL at 20 °C

Boiling Point:111 °C

Melting Point:-16 °C

Storage Temperature:2-8°C

Solubility:Decomposes.

Stability:Stable. Contact with acids releases poisonous gas ( chlorine ). Light sensitive. Incompatible with strong acids, amines, ammonia, ammonium salts, reducing agents, metals, aziridine, methanol, formic acid, phenylacetonitrile.
Chemical Properties:colourless liquid with strong odour
General Description: Green to yellow watery liquid with an odor of bleaching liquid odor. Sinks and mixes with water.
Air & Water Reactions: Water soluble. Decomposes into chlorine and oxygen gases in hot water.
Reactivity Profile:Salts of hypochlorous acid, HClO. Generally toxic, irritants and powerful oxidizers, particularly in the presence of water at higher temperature as they decompose to release oxygen and chlorine gases. On contact with urea they form the highly explosive NCl3 . When heated or on contact with acids, they produce highly toxic fumes of chlorine gas . Can react with sulfuric acid to produce heat and chlorine gas.
Health Hazard :Liquid can be irritating to skin and eyes if contact is maintained.
Fire Hazard: Behavior in Fire: May decompose, generating irritating chlorine gas.
3. Preparation of Sodium hypochlorite
This is the only large scale industrial method of sodium hypochlorite production. In this process sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and sodium chloride (NaCl) are formed when chlorine is passed into cold and dilute sodium hydroxide solution. It is prepared industrially by electrolysis with minimal separation between the anode and the cathode. The solution must be kept below 40 °C (by cooling coils) to prevent the undesired formation of sodium chlorate.
Cl2 + 2 NaOH → NaCl + NaClO + H2O
4. Safety of Sodium hypochlorite
When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following:
It contacts with acids liberates toxic gas and can cause burns. After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of . In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. Besides, this chemical is irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. When you are using it, wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection. In case of accident or if you feel unwell seek medical advice immediately.

Hazard of Chromium(VI) oxide

Chromium(VI) oxide is a red compound, CrO3; rhombic; r.d. 2.70; m.p. 196°C. It can be made by careful addition of concentrated sulphuric acid to an ice-cooled concentrated aqueous solution of sodium dichromate with stirring. The mixture is then filtered through sintered glass, washed with nitric acid, then dried at 120°C in a desiccator.

Chromium(VI) oxide is an extremely powerful oxidizing agent, especially to organic matter; it immediately inflames ethanol. It is an acidic oxide and dissolves in water to form ‘chromic acid’, a powerful oxidizing agent and cleansing fluid for glassware. At 400°C, chromium(VI) oxide loses oxygen to give chromium(III) oxide.

Chromium (VI) Oxide(CAS.NO:1333-82-0) is a red odorless powder.  It is used in chrome plating, aluminum anodizing, dye, ink and paint manufacturing,  tanning, engraving and photography.
 1. Chronic Health Effects 

The following chronic (long-term) health effects can occur at some time after exposure to Chromium (VI) Oxide and can last for months or years:
1) Cancer Hazard
 *    Chromium (VI) Oxide is a CARCINOGEN in humans.  It has been shown to cause lung and throat cancer.

 *    Many scientists believe there is no safe level of exposure to a carcinogen. Such substances may also have the potential for causing reproductive damage in humans.

2) Reproductive Hazard

 *    There is limited evidence that Chromium (VI) Oxide is a teratogen in animals. until further testing has been done, it should be treated as a possible teratogen in humans.

3) Other Long-Term Effects
 *    Chromium (VI) Oxide can cause a hole in the “bone” dividing  the inner  nose.  Early signs may occur, of irritation,  discharge, bleeding, and/or formation of a crust in the inner nose.

 *    Exposed persons may develop a skin allergy, with a rash like eczema.  If this happens, any future skin contact can trigger severe rash.

 *    Upset stomach and sometimes stomach ulcers can occur.

 *    Exposure may cause irritation of the bronchial tubes  (bronchitis) with cough and phlegm.

 *    Lung allergy, with wheezing or shortness of breath, sometimes  occurs.  In such cases, even small future exposures can cause symptoms.  Repeated attacks may lead to lung scarring.

 *    Repeated or severe exposure may cause liver or kidney damage, growths (polyps) on the voice box, or changes in the blood count.
2. Hazard Summary
 *    Chromium (VI) Oxide can affect you when breathed in.  It can also enter the body through the skin.

 *    Chromium (VI) Oxide is a carcinogen–handle with extreme caution.

 *    Eye contact can cause severe damage with possible loss of  vision.

 *    Breathing Chromium (VI) Oxide can cause a sore or hole through the inner nose (septum), sometime with bleeding, discharge or crusting.  Irritation of nose, throat and bronchial tubes can also occur, with cough and/or wheezing.

 *    Skin contact can cause deep ulcers, or an allergic skin rash. Severe skin irritation may also occur.
3. Spillage Disposal
Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Vacuum spilled material. OR Sweep spilled substance into sealable containers; if appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting. Carefully collect remainder, then remove to safe place. Do NOT absorb in saw-dust or other combustible absorbents. Personal protection: complete protective clothing including self-contained breathing apparatus.

Sodium chloride’s Uses And Preparation

Sodium chloride, also known as salt, common salt, table salt or halite, is an ionic compound with the formula NaCl, representing equal proportions of sodium and chlorine. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of the ocean and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. In the form of edible or table salt it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical syntheses. A second major consumer of sodium chloride is de-icing of roadways in sub-freezing weather.

1. Uses of Sodium chloride 
As the major ingredient in edible salt, Sodium chloride is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. Sodium chloride can manufacture pulp and paper, to setting dyes in textiles and fabric, to producing soaps, detergents, and other bath products. Sodium chloride is sometimes used as a cheap and safe desiccant because of its hygroscopic properties.
Salt also is added to secure the soil and to provide firmness to the foundation on which highways are built. Road salt ends up in fresh water bodies and could harm aquatic plants and animals by disrupting their osmoregulation ability. The industrial uses of salt include, in descending order of quantity consumed, various applications, oil and gas exploration, textiles and dyeing, pulp and paper, metal processing, tanning and leather treatment, and rubber manufacture. It is used to flocculate and increase the density of the drilling fluid to overcome high downwell gas pressures.
In textiles and dyeing, salt is used as a brine rinse to separate organic contaminants, to promote “salting out” of dyestuff precipitates, and to blend with concentrated dyes to standardize them. In metal processing, salt is used in concentrating uranium ore into uranium oxide (yellow cake). It also is used in processing aluminium, beryllium, copper, steel and vanadium. In the pulp and paper industry, salt is used to bleach wood pulp. It also is used to make sodium chlorate. In rubber manufacture, salt is used to make buna, neoprene and white rubber types.
2. Preparation of Sodium chloride

Salt is currently mass-produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources, such as brine wells and salt lakes, and by mining rock salt, called halite. Using sold salt dissoves in distilled water. The mixture is boiled after addition of sodium hydroxide, then is stored overnight and filtered. You should keep filtrate clean and then cool down it simultaneously put into pure HCl gas to make the mixture saturated. After that, crystal of Sodium chloride will separate out. There are also three methods of Sodium chloride production and purification: brine solution, rock salt mining, and the open pan or grainer process:
To produce Sodium chloride from brine, water is pumped into the salt deposit and the saturated salt solution containing 26% salt, 73.5% water, and 0.5% impurities, is removed. Hydrogen sulfide is removed by aeration, and oxidation with chlorine. Calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), and iron (Fe3+) are precipitated as the carbonates using soda ash and are removed in a settling tank. The brine solution can be sold directly or it can be evaporated to give salt of 99.8% purity.
Rock salt is produced from deep mines so that the salt is taken directly from the deposit. Salt obtained by this method is 98.5 to 99.4% pure.
In the open pan or grainer salt method, hot brine solution is held in an open pan approximately 4 to 6 meters wide, 45 to 60 meters long, and 60 cm deep at 96°C. Flat, pure sodium chloride crystals form on the surface and fall to the bottom and are raked to a centrifuge, separated from the brine, and dried. A purity of 99.98% is obtained. A vacuum pan system is also available.