Safety of Sodium gluconate

Sodium gluconate , with CAS number of 527-07-1, can be called D-Gluconic acid, monosodium salt ; Gluconato di sodio ; Monosodium D-gluconate ; Gluconic acid sodium salt ; Sodium D-gluconate ; Sodium gluconate . It is a white or off-white granular powder.
Sodium gluconate is widely used in textile dyeing, printing and metal surface water treatment. It is also used as a chelating agent, a steel surface cleaning agent, a cleaning agent for glass bottles, and as a chelating agent for cement, plating and alumina dyeing industries. It is a white colorless powder that is very soluble in water.
1. Danger
Although ingestion is not thought to produce harmful effects, Sodium gluconate may still be damaging to the health of the individual following ingestion, especially where pre-existing organ (e.g. liver, kidney) damage is evident. Present definitions of harmful or toxic substances are generally based on doses producing mortality (death) rather than those producing morbidity (disease, ill-health). Gastrointestinal tract discomfort may produce nausea and vomiting. In an occupational setting however, ingestion of insignificant quantities is not thought to be cause for concern.
Although Sodium gluconate is not thought to be an irritant, direct contact with the eye may cause transient discomfort characterized by tearing or conjunctival redness (as with windburn). Slight abrasive damage may also result. The material may produce foreign body irritation in certain individuals.
Sodium gluconate is not thought to produce adverse health effects or skin irritation following contact (as classified using animal models). Nevertheless, good hygiene practice requires that exposure be kept to a minimum and that suitable gloves be used in an occupational setting.
Sodium gluconate is not thought to produce adverse health effects or irritation of the respiratory tract (as classified using animal models). Nevertheless, good hygiene practice requires that exposure be kept to a minimum and that suitable control measures be used in an occupational setting.
Persons with impaired respiratory function, airway diseases and conditions such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis, may incur further disability if excessive concentrations of particulate are inhaled.
Not normally a hazard due to non-volatile nature of product.
2. Storage Requirements
*Store in original containers.

*Keep containers securely sealed.

*Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area.

*Store away from incompatible materials and foodstuff containers.

*Protect containers against physical damage and check regularly for leaks.



Captopril:application, dose, side effect,storage

Captopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used for the treatment of hypertension and some types of congestive heart failure. Captopril was the first ACE inhibitor developed and was considered a breakthrough both because of its novel mechanism of action and also because of the revolutionary development process. Captopril is commonly marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb under the trade name Capoten.
1. What can Captopril be used for?
Captopril’s main uses are based on its vasodilation and inhibition of some renal function activities. These benefits are most clearly seen in the following conditions:

1) Hypertension

2) Cardiac conditions such as congestive heart failure and after myocardial infarction

3) Preservation of kidney function in diabetic nephropathy

Additionally, it has shown mood-elevating properties in some patients. This is consistent with the observation that animal screening models indicate putative antidepressant activity for this compound, although there has been one negative study. Formal clinical trials in depressed patients have not been reported.
2. How to store captopril
*Keep all medicines out of the reach and sight of children.

*Store in a cool, dry place, away from direct heat and light.
3. What happens if I miss a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.
4. What happens if I overdose?
Captopril (as other ACE inhibitors) overdose can be antagonized with naloxone.
5. What’s the side effects of Captopril?
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction to captopril: hives; severe stomach pain; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
1)Call your doctor at once if you have:
*a light-headed feeling, like you might pass out;

*little or no urinating, or urinating more than usual;

*shortness of breath (even with mild exertion), swelling, rapid weight gain;

*chest pain or pressure, pounding heartbeats or fluttering in your chest;

*high potassium (slow heart rate, weak pulse, muscle weakness, tingly feeling); or

*sudden weakness or ill feeling, fever, chills, sore throat, painful mouth sores, pain when *swallowing, skin sores, cold or flu symptoms.
2)Common captopril side effects may include:

*flushing (warmth, redness, or tingly feeling);

*numbness, tingling, or burning pain in your hands or feet;

*loss of taste sensation; or

*mild skin itching or rash.

The Usage and Side Effects of Diclofenac sodium

Diclofenac sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) which is primarily used to help treat the symptoms of arthritis. These medications can help reduce the swelling and inflammation caused by the disease to help provide comfort to the patient. However, NSAID medication cannot cure arthritis or any similar diseases. You may only use this medication with a valid prescription from your doctor. Much of the use and dosing of diclofenac sodium will be dependent on the patient’s condition, reaction to the medication and the disease being treated.

1. Indications and Usage

Diclofenac sodium(CAS.NO:15307-79-6) is sold under the brand names Cambia, Cataflam, Voltaren, Voltaren-XR and Zipsor. These medications are used to help relieve the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, pain, inflammation, swelling, stiffness and joint pain. In some cases, this medication will be used as part of a treatment regimen for ankylosing spondylitis, menstrual cramps or acute migraine attacks.
Diclofenac sodium is available in enteric coated tablets, extended release tablets, capsules, powder or solution, liquid filled capsule or a traditional tablet form. Dosing and instructions will vary based on the condition that is to be treated. You should not take more than instructed as this can lead to an increased risk of side effects. If you are using this medication for arthritis, you will usually be ordered to take this medication once a day for up to two weeks or until you begin to feel better. It may take several weeks until you feel the full effects of the medication.
Most forms of diclofenac sodium can be taken with or without food, though the oral solution should be taken on an empty stomach. If you are using the oral solution, only open the packaging right as you are about to use it. Mix the contents of one packed with up to 2 ounces of water and drink immediately. Do not use any other liquid to mix this medication.
2. Diclofenac Sodium Side Effects
Common side effects of diclofenac sodium include heartburn, constipation, diarrhea, unexplained bleeding, ulcers in the stomach or intestines, gas, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, dizziness, swelling, headache, itching, ringing in the ears or unexplained rash. These side effects occur in up to 10 percent of users. In most cases these side effects are not cause for alarm, but you should report them to your doctor right away to determine if you need additional treatment or an alteration in your prescription size.
More severe side effects to diclofenac sodium include fever, infection, congestive heart failure, hypertension, ecchymosis, esophagitis, depression, asthma, blurred vision, alopecia, or cystitis. Inform your doctor right away if these conditions begin to develop while you are using this medication.
Rare but serious side effects to diclofenac sodium include anaphylactic reactions, arrhythmia, colitis, liver failure, hemolytic anemia, hyperglycemia, convulsions, coma, hallucinations, respiratory depression, angioedema, toxic epidermal necrolysis, conjunctivitis and hearing impairment. If you begin to suffer from any of these symptoms, talk to a medical professional right away about whether or not it is safe to continue using diclofenac sodium. If at any point you feel as though your life is in danger due to your side effects, contact emergency medical services immediately.
If you begin to suffer from lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting or epigastric pain you may be suffering from an overdose of your medication. Contact emergency medical services immediately to get treatment to reverse these effects. If possible, have information ready regarding how much of your medication you have taken and when so you can help these professionals determine how best to assist you.

Some information about Benzophenone

Benzophenone is the organic compound with the formula (C6H5)2CO, generally abbreviated Ph2CO. Benzophenone is a widely used building block in organic chemistry, being the parent diarylketone.

1. Uses
Benzophenone can be used as a photo initiator in UV-curing applications such as inks, imaging, and clear coatings in the printing industry. Benzophenone prevents ultraviolet (UV) light from damaging scents and colors in products such as perfumes and soaps. It can also be added to the plastic packaging as a UV blocker. Its use allows manufacturers to package the product in clear glass or plastic. Without it, opaque or dark packaging would be required.
In biological applications, benzophenones have been used extensively as photophysical probes to identify and map peptide–protein interactions.
2. Methods of Manufacturing
Benzophenone is usually produced by atmospheric oxidation of diphenylmethane in the presence of metal catalysts such as copper naphthenate. Other processes include Friedel Crafts acylation of benzene with benzoyl chloride or of benzene with phosgene.
Prepd by the Friedel-Crafts ketone synthesis from benzene and benzoyl chloride in the presence of aluminum chloride; by decarboxylation of o-benzoylbenzoic acid in the presence of copper catalyst.
3. Chemical Properties
Benzophenone is A white crystalline compound which is used in perfumes to prevent evaporation and in the manufacture of insecticides. Benzophenone is a ketone.Its Chemical formula is C13H10O.
Benzophenone is a common photosensitizer in photochemistry. It crosses from the S1 state into the triplet state with nearly 100% yield. The resulting diradical will abstract a hydrogen atom from a suitable hydrogen donor to form a ketyl radical.
4. Storage Temperature
Store in a tightly closed container. Keep from contact with oxidizing materials. Store in a cool, dry area away from incompatible substances.
5. Reactivity Profile
Ketones, such as Benzophenone, are reactive with many acids and bases liberating heat and flammable gases (e.g., H2). The amount of heat may be sufficient to start a fire in the unreacted portion of the ketone. Ketones react with reducing agents such as hydrides, alkali metals, and nitrides to produce flammable gas (H2) and heat. Ketones are incompatible with isocyanates, aldehydes, cyanides, peroxides, and anhydrides. They react violently with aldehydes, HNO3, HNO3 + H2O2, and HClO4. Benzophenone can react with oxidizing materials.

Intro To Mercury

Mercury is a chemical element with the symbol Hg and atomic number 80. It is commonly known as quicksilver and was formerly named hydrargyrum (from Greek “hydr-” water and “argyros” silver). A heavy, silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metal that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure; the only other element that is liquid under these conditions is bromine, though metals such as caesium, gallium, and rubidium melt just above room temperature. With a freezing point of −38.83 °C and boiling point of 356.73 °C, mercury has one of the narrowest ranges of its liquid state of any metal.

Mercury is used in thermometers, barometers, manometers, sphygmomanometers, float valves, mercury switches, mercury relays, fluorescent lamps and other devices though concerns about the element’s toxicity have led to mercury thermometers and sphygmomanometers being largely phased out in clinical environments in favour of alternatives such as alcohol or galinstan-filled glass thermometers, thermistor or infrared-based electronic instruments. Likewise mechanical pressure gauges and electronic strain gauge sensors have replaced mercury sphygmomanometers. It remains in use in scientific research applications and in amalgam material for dental restoration in some locales. It is used in lighting: electricity passed through mercury vapor in a fluorescent lamp produces short-wave ultraviolet light which then causes the phosphor in the tube to fluoresce, making visible light.

Mercury does not react with most acids, such as dilute sulfuric acid, although oxidizing acids such as concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid or aqua regia dissolve it to give sulfate, nitrate, and chloride salts. Like silver, mercury reacts with atmospheric hydrogen sulfide. Mercury even reacts with solid sulfur flakes, which are used in mercury spill kits to absorb mercury vapors (spill kits also use activated carbon and powdered zinc).



Molecular Formula:Hg

CAS Registry Number:7439-97-6

Synonyms:Quicksilver; Mercury metal 99.99+ % for analysis; Mercuryredistilled; Mercury solution 1000 ppm; Mercury solution 10 000 ppm


Appearance:silver liquid

Molecular Weight:200.59


Boiling Point:356.5°C

Melting Point:-38.9°C

Storage Temperature:Poison room

Solubility:insoluble in water

Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, sodium thiosulfate, ammonium hydroxide.

Some basic question about Rifampicin

Rifampicin is a prescription medication antibiotic that is primarily used to treat a medical condition known as tuberculosis, although it may also be used to treat other bacterial infections. Available in the form of a tablet, liquid, or injection, this drug works by destroying bacteria responsible for infection. Some of the most frequently reported side effects of rifampicin include discoloration of bodily fluids, nausea, and headaches. More serious complications stemming from the use of rifampicin may include intestinal inflammation, liver damage, or allergic reactions. A doctor should be consulted with any specific questions or concerns about the use of rifampicin in an individual situation.

1. How should this medicine be used?

Rifampin(CAS.NO:13292-46-1) comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It should be taken with a full glass of water on an empty stomach, 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal. When rifampin is used to treat tuberculosis, it is taken once daily. When rifampin is used to prevent the spread of Neisseria meningitidis bacteria to other people, it is taken twice daily for two days. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take rifampin exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you cannot swallow the capsules. Your pharmacist can prepare a liquid for you to take instead.

If you are taking rifampin to treat tuberculosis, your doctor may tell you to take rifampin for several months or longer. Continue to take rifampin until you finish the prescription even if you feel better, and be careful not to miss doses. If you stop taking rifampin too soon, your infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics. If you miss doses of rifampin, you may develop uncomfortable or serious symptoms when you begin to take the medication again.

2. What should I do if I forget a dose?

Do not miss doses of rifampin. Missing doses may increase the risk that you will experience serious side effects. If you do miss a dose, take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and call your doctor. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.

3. What should I know about storage and disposal of this medication?

Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.

4. What is the Interaction with other medications

It is important to inform the person prescribing you rifampicin if you are taking any of the following prescription drugs: anticoagulants such as warfarin, steroids, several drugs for heart disease, tablets to control diabetes, tablets for epilepsy, tablets for asthma, methadone, antiviral agents, antidepressants and cyclosporin. The dosage of these medications may need to be adjusted while you are taking rifampicin.

5. Can Rifampicin reduce the effectiveness of contraceptives. 

Women taking the oral contraceptive pill or using progestogen only contraceptives, including implants, should use additional barrier contraception such as condoms while taking rifampicin and for 4 weeks after the last dose of rifampicin. The oral contraception should continue to be taken, however any pill-free or sugar pill days should be omitted while taking rifampicin and for 7 days after the last dose.

How can you buy the medicine of Naproxen online?

Naproxen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for the management of mild to moderate pain, fever and inflammation. This drug is quite similar to ibuprofen, indomethacin and nabumetone, amongst others. It can be used to treat a variety of conditions, including swelling, arthritis, tendonitis, gout, menstrual cramps, and bursitis. You may need a prescription in order to get Naproxen for your condition. Work with your doctor to determine if Naproxen is right for you.

Naproxen was originally marketed as the prescription drug Naprosyn by Syntex in 1976, and naproxen sodium was first marketed under the trade name Anaprox in 1980. It remains a prescription-only drug in much of the world. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved its use as an over-the-counter (OTC) drug in 1994; OTC preparations in the U.S. are mainly marketed by Bayer HealthCare under the trade name Aleve and generic store brand formulations in 220 mg tablets. In Australia, packets of 275 mg tablets of naproxen sodium are Schedule 2 pharmacy medicines, with a maximum daily dose of five tablets or 1375 mg. In the United Kingdom, 250-mg tablets of naproxen were approved for OTC sale under the brand name Feminax Ultra in 2008, for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea in women aged 15 to 50. In the Netherlands, 220mg and 275mg tablets are available OTC in drugstores, 550mg is OTC only at pharmacists. Aleve became available over-the-counter in most provinces in Canada on 14 July 2009, but not British Columbia, Quebec or Newfoundland and Labrador; it became available OTC in British Columbia in late January 2010.

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