Intro to the Phosphoric acid

Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) acid having the chemical formula H3PO4. Orthophosphoric acid molecules can combine with themselves to form a variety of compounds which are also referred to as phosphoric acids, but in a more general way. The term phosphoric acid can also refer to a chemical or reagent consisting of phosphoric acids, such as pyrophosphoric acid or triphosphoric acid, but usually orthophosphoric acid.

There are two distinct kinds of orthophosphoric acid, based on the method of preparation. They are known as thermal phosphoric acid and wet phosphoric acid.

Thermal phosphoric acid: This very pure phosphoric acid is obtained by burning elemental phosphorus to produce phosphorus pentoxide and dissolving the product in dilute phosphoric acid. This is the cleanest way of producing phosphoric acid, since most impurities present in the rock have been removed when extracting phosphorus from the rock in a furnace. The end result is food grade, thermal phosphoric acid; however, for critical applications additional processing to remove arsenic compounds may be needed.

Wet phosphoric acid: Green phosphoric acid is prepared by adding sulfuric acid to calcium phosphate rock, or slurry. The reaction for calcium phosphate slurry is:

3H2SO4(aq) + Ca3(PO4)2(aq) + 6H2O(l) ↔ 2H3PO4(aq) + 3CaSO4(aq)+ 6H2O(l)

Through modern filtering techniques the wet process acid can be cleaned up significantly but still isn’t as pure as thermal phosphoric acid; as it may contain other acidic species such as hydrofluoric acid.
Name:Phosphoric acid


Molecular Formula:H3PO4

CAS Registry Number:7664-38-2 

Synonyms:Orthophosphoric acid; PA


Appearance:Clear liquid

Molecular Weight:97.99

Density:1.685 g/mL at 25℃ (lit.)

Boiling Point:158℃

Melting Point:21℃

Storage Temperature:Store in a tightly closed container. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances. Keep away from metals. Corrosives area. Do not store in metal containers.

Refractive index:n20/D 1.433


Stability:Stable at room temperature in closed containers under normal storage and handling conditions.

Chemical Properties:Clear liquid

Usage:Phosphorous acid is used for reaction with inorganic and organic products, for water treatment, industrial and agricultural uses. It is also used to bleach industrial and cleaning supplies.

General Description:A clear colorless liquid or transparent crystalline solid. The pure solid melts at 42.35°C and has a density of 1.834 g / cm3. Liquid is usually an 85% aqueous solution. Shipped as both a solid and liquid. Corrosive to metals and tissue. Used in making fertilizers and detergents and in food processing.
Air & Water Reactions: Soluble in water with small release of heat.

Reactivity Profile: Phosphorous acid reacts exothermically with bases. May react with active metals, including such structural metals as aluminum and iron, to release hydrogen, a flammable gas. Can initiate the polymerization of certain classes of organic compounds. Reacts with cyanide compounds to release gaseous hydrogen cyanide. May generate flammable and/or toxic gases in contact with dithiocarbamates, isocyanates, mercaptans, nitrides, nitriles, sulfides, and strong reducing agents. Forms explosive mixture with nitromethane. Reacts violently with sodium tetrahydroborate. In the presence of chlorides can corrode stainless steel to form explosive hydrogen gas. Emits toxic and irritating fumes of oxides of phosphorus when heated to decomposition.

Health Hazard: Burns on mouth and lips, sour acrid taste, severe gastrointestinal irritation, nausea, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, difficult swallowing, severe abdominal pains, thirst, acidemia, difficult breathing, convulsions, collapse, shock, death.

Fire Hazard: Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.

Analysis About Proline

Proline (abbreviated as Pro or P) is an α-amino acid, one of the twenty DNA-encoded amino acids. Its codons are CCU, CCC, CCA, and CCG. It is not an essential amino acid, which means that the human body can synthesize it. It is unique among the 20 protein-forming amino acids in that the amine nitrogen is bound to not one but two alkyl groups, thus making it a secondary amine. The more common L form has S stereochemistry.

Richard Willstatter synthesized proline by the reaction of sodium salt of diethyl malonate with 1,3-dibromopropane in 1900. In 1901, Hermann Emil Fischer isolated proline from casein and the decomposition products of γ-phthalimido-propylmalonic ester.

Proline shares many properties with the aliphatic group.

Proline(CAS.NO:344-25-2) is formally NOT an amino acid, but an imino acid. Nonetheless, it is called an amino acid. The primary amine on the α carbon of glutamate semialdehyde forms a Schiff base with the aldehyde which is then reduced, yielding proline.

When proline is in a peptide bond, it does not have a hydrogen on the α amino group, so it cannot donate a hydrogen bond to stabilize an α helix or a β sheet. It is often said, inaccurately, that proline cannot exist in an α helix. When proline is found in an α helix, the helix will have a slight bend due to the lack of the hydrogen bond.

Proline is often found at the end of α helix or in turns or loops. Unlike other amino acids which exist almost exclusively in the trans- form in polypeptides, proline can exist in the cis-configuration in peptides. The cis and trans forms are nearly isoenergetic. The cis/trans isomerization can play an important role in the folding of proteins and will be discussed more in that context.

Glutamic acid (abbreviated as Glu or E) is one of the 20-22 proteinogenic amino acids, and its codons are GAA and GAG. It is a non-essential amino acid. The carboxylate anions and salts of glutamic acid are known as glutamates. In neuroscience, glutamate is an important neurotransmitter that plays a key role in long-term potentiation and is important for learning and memory.

Glutamic acid is easily converted into proline. First, the γcarboxyl group is reduced to the aldehyde, yielding glutamate semialdehyde. The aldehyde then reacts with the α-amino group, eliminating water as it forms the Schiff base. In a second reduction step, the Schiff base is reduced, yielding proline.

Cypermethrin’s hurmful knowledge

Cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid used as an insecticide in large-scale commercial agricultural applications as well as in consumer products for domestic purposes. It behaves as a fast-acting neurotoxin in insects. It is easily degraded on soil and plants but can be effective for weeks when applied to indoor inert surfaces. Exposure to sunlight, water and oxygen will accelerate its decomposition. Cypermethrin is highly toxic to fish, bees and aquatic insects, according to the National Pesticides Telecommunications Network (NPTN). It is found in many household ant and cockroach killers, including Raid and ant chalk.

Cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid, a man-made chemical that mimics the insect-killing abilities of chrysanthemums. It is used to protect crops from pests. It is also used to prevent insects from entering buildings. Cypermethrin is put into cracks and holes in apartment buildings, warehouses, laboratories and stores. It can also be used on ships, planes and trucks to prevent insect infestation. It can cause health problems in humans. Cypermethrin has adverse effects on the skin, respiratory system and digestive system and can even cause death.

Excessive exposure can cause nausea, headache, muscle weakness, salivation, shortness of breath and seizures. In humans, cypermethrin is deactivated by enzymatic hydrolysis to several carboxylic acid metabolites, which are eliminated in the urine. Worker exposure to the chemical can be monitored by measurement of the urinary metabolites, while severe overdosage may be confirmed by quantitation of cypermethrin in blood or plasma.

Cypermethrin can irritate the skin and eyes if it comes in contact with them. Cypermethrin effects on the skin include sensations of numbness, burning or tingling at the site of exposure. Some people may also experience allergic reactions. The body can absorb it through the skin. After dermal absorption, a person can experience impaired coordination, dizziness and even seizures. A person exposed to large amounts of cypermethrin can lose bladder control.

Signs and Symptoms of Exposure :

Exposure can cause numbness, tingling, and weakness in extremities., Nausea, Dizziness, Headache, Central nervous system depression, To the best of our knowledge, the chemical, physical, and toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated.

Potential health effects :
Inhalation:Toxic if inhaled. Causes respiratory tract irritation.

Ingestion :Toxic if swallowed.

Skin: Harmful if absorbed through skin. Causes skin irritation.

Cypermethrin has been flagged by the EPA as a weak possible carcinogen in humans. It can affect the central nervous system. In long-term experiments with test animals, exposure caused changes to the liver and kidneys. There is also the possibility that cypermethrin can cause death. This requires extreme exposure, like eating a large quantity of the chemical.