Some information about Benzophenone

Benzophenone is the organic compound with the formula (C6H5)2CO, generally abbreviated Ph2CO. Benzophenone is a widely used building block in organic chemistry, being the parent diarylketone.

1. Uses
Benzophenone can be used as a photo initiator in UV-curing applications such as inks, imaging, and clear coatings in the printing industry. Benzophenone prevents ultraviolet (UV) light from damaging scents and colors in products such as perfumes and soaps. It can also be added to the plastic packaging as a UV blocker. Its use allows manufacturers to package the product in clear glass or plastic. Without it, opaque or dark packaging would be required.
In biological applications, benzophenones have been used extensively as photophysical probes to identify and map peptide–protein interactions.
2. Methods of Manufacturing
Benzophenone is usually produced by atmospheric oxidation of diphenylmethane in the presence of metal catalysts such as copper naphthenate. Other processes include Friedel Crafts acylation of benzene with benzoyl chloride or of benzene with phosgene.
Prepd by the Friedel-Crafts ketone synthesis from benzene and benzoyl chloride in the presence of aluminum chloride; by decarboxylation of o-benzoylbenzoic acid in the presence of copper catalyst.
3. Chemical Properties
Benzophenone is A white crystalline compound which is used in perfumes to prevent evaporation and in the manufacture of insecticides. Benzophenone is a ketone.Its Chemical formula is C13H10O.
Benzophenone is a common photosensitizer in photochemistry. It crosses from the S1 state into the triplet state with nearly 100% yield. The resulting diradical will abstract a hydrogen atom from a suitable hydrogen donor to form a ketyl radical.
4. Storage Temperature
Store in a tightly closed container. Keep from contact with oxidizing materials. Store in a cool, dry area away from incompatible substances.
5. Reactivity Profile
Ketones, such as Benzophenone, are reactive with many acids and bases liberating heat and flammable gases (e.g., H2). The amount of heat may be sufficient to start a fire in the unreacted portion of the ketone. Ketones react with reducing agents such as hydrides, alkali metals, and nitrides to produce flammable gas (H2) and heat. Ketones are incompatible with isocyanates, aldehydes, cyanides, peroxides, and anhydrides. They react violently with aldehydes, HNO3, HNO3 + H2O2, and HClO4. Benzophenone can react with oxidizing materials.

Zinc chloride batteries Compared to Carbon Zinc batteries

Zinc chloride batteries are steadily becoming a thing of the past. While they are more efficient than the carbon zinc battery, they pale in comparison to the popular alkaline battery. However, just because there are more innovative batteries on the market, it does not mean that the zinc chloride battery is useless. All batteries operate in the same way; they move electrons from one area to another, creating an electrical current.

Zinc chloride batteries still have a wide variety of useful applications.They come in several traditional sizes such as AA, AAA and can be used in many electronic devices from portable compact disk players to miniature flashlights.The function of any battery is to increase the portability of an electronic device by not having to plug it into an outlet.

While zinc chloride batteries do outperform some batteries, they cannot outperform others. Compared with carbon zinc batteries, zinc chloride batteries have a 50% higher capacity, but are outperformed by alkaline batteries, which can have a 500% to 700% higher capacity. Zinc chloride batteries are less likely to leak than carbon zinc batteries.

The Zinc Chloride battery is a beefed up version of the general purpose Carbon Zinc battery. Variation in the chemical mix increases its capacity fifty percent. This kind of capacity makes it a better choice than Carbon Zinc because it can deliver more current. Zinc Chloride batteries are superior to Carbon Zinc in leak resistance.

Voltage decreases with each use until cutoff voltage is reached and the battery becomes useless. While Zinc Chloride batteries are labeled heavy duty, they do not withstand high temperatures much better than Carbon Zinc; however, they do perform better at low temperatures. Storage, or shelf life, is much longer than with Carbon Zinc batteries, but storing them at high temperature will shorten their life dramatically.

Zinc chloride batteries operate well at low temperatures. Their optimal range is between 0 degrees Fahrenheit and 160 degrees Fahrenheit. Their storage life is about two years. Unlike some batteries on the market today, zinc chloride batteries are not recyclable.

Compared to Carbon Zinc, Zinc Chloride batteries weigh twenty percent more, offer a fifty percent increase in service capacity, have the ability to sustain higher current drain and perform better at lower temperatures. When the Enercell Battery Guidebook was produced, Zinc Chloride batteries cost sixty percent more than Carbon Zinc, and were available everywhere and in many sizes. As with Carbon Zinc, price, availability and size range were the three advantages of Zinc Chloride over Alkaline batteries. Advances in technology and manufacturing techniques have eliminated these advantages by lowering the costs of producing alkalines in a wide range of readily available sizes. RadioShack takes great pride in our battery line and strives to provide the best quality for the price to our customers. As Zinc Chloride no longer offers a significant advantage and has significant disadvantages in cylindrical batteries, cylindrical Zinc Chloride batteries are no longer carried by RadioShack. The only Zinc Chloride batteries presently sold are lantern batteries.