News: China’s zinc imports up 91.05 pct in November

Zinc prices rose to their highest level in nearly 10 months on Monday, the biggest gainer in the base metals complex, lifted by tightening supplies and robust imports by China.

Data from China showed the country’s imports of the metal used to galvanise steel jumped 91.05 percent to 73,744 tonnes in November.

At the same time, zinc stocks in LME-monitored warehouses dropped 4,200 tonnes, latest exchange data showed, bringing the total down to 890,625 tonnes, a fall of 175,225 tonnes or 16 percent over the past two months.

Three-month zinc on the London Metal Exchange rose to a session high of $2,071, its highest level since March 1. It closed at $2,057 a tonne, up from a last bid of $2,039.

“Zinc looks most interesting in our view as supplies tighten, while demand, and especially from the steel sector in China, continues to improve,” Andrey Kryuchenkov, analyst at VTB said in a note.

“Zinc could well finally break out of the… $1,800 to $2,000 range and return into the early 2011 range between $2,400 to $2,600 on the 3-month benchmark contract.”

Cash prices for zinc traded at a $2.50 discount to three-month futures prices, against a $11.75 discount last week.

Copper prices were also buoyed by tightening supplies. Latest daily LME data showed copper stocks fell 3,450 tonnes to 379,100 tonnes, their lowest level since late January.

Three-month copper on the LME, untraded at the close, was bid at $7,240 from $7,238 on Friday. LME cash copper traded at a $10.50 premium to the three-month benchmark .

Analysts said the metal used in power and construction was benefiting from investors taking the view that the U.S. economy can withstand the Federal Reserve’s modest tapering of monetary stimulus.

“Growth is strong enough for the Fed to taper and that is a positive sign for copper,” said Credit Suisse analyst Tobias Merath.

He added: “We have seen inventory declines at the LME, and we have seen local premiums are still quite strong – an indication that end user demand is actually not so bad.”

Data out earlier showed China’s imports of refined copper in November jumped 31.22 percent to 328,907 tonnes.

China accounts for about 40 percent of the world’s copper demand and analysts say recent imports of the metal may have been used for financing rather than being consumed by end-users.

On the downside, however, China’s cash market squeeze showed little sign of easing on Monday, reinforcing the view the central bank has shifted to tighter monetary policy in a bid to curb risky lending.

In other metals, tin closed at $22,915 from $22,950.

In Indonesia, top tin exporter PT Timah has lifted a force majeure on shipments, declared on Aug. 30, as conditions improved after the government introduced a rule forcing domestic producers to trade on a local exchange.

Aluminium ended at $1,760 from a close of $1,785, while lead closed at $2,230 from $2,216, having earlier hit its highest since late August at $2,235 a tonne.

Nickel ended at $14,300 from a close of $14,420 on Friday.

Reference: .   Author:  Maytaal Angel and Harpreet Bhal, Reuters|
24 December 2013 01:05


Compounds of zinc

Zinc , with CAS number of 7440-66-6, can be called Asarco L 15 ; Blue powder ; CCRIS 1582 ; Emanay zinc dust ; Granular zinc ; Lead refinery vacuum zinc ; Rheinzink ; Merrillite .

Zinc has an electron configuration of [Ar]3d104s2 and is a member of the group 12 of the periodic table. It is a moderately reactive metal and strong reducing agent. The surface of the pure metal tarnishes quickly, eventually forming a protective passivating layer of the basic zinc carbonate, Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2, by reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide. This layer helps prevent further reaction with air and water.

Zinc burns in air with a bright bluish-green flame, giving off fumes of zinc oxide. Zinc reacts readily with acids, alkalis and other non-metals. Extremely pure zinc reacts only slowly at room temperature with acids. Strong acids, such as hydrochloric or sulfuric acid, can remove the passivating layer and subsequent reaction with water releases hydrogen gas.

The chemistry of zinc is dominated by the +2 oxidation state. When compounds in this oxidation state are formed the outer shell s electrons are lost, which yields a bare zinc ion with the electronic configuration [Ar]3d10. In aqueous solution an octahedral complex, [Zn(H2O)6]2+ is the predominant species. The volatilization of zinc in combination with zinc chloride at temperatures above 285 °C indicates the formation of Zn2Cl2, a zinc compound with a +1 oxidation state. No compounds of zinc in oxidation states other than +1 or +2 are known. Calculations indicate that a zinc compound with the oxidation state of +4 is unlikely to exist.

Zinc chemistry is similar to the chemistry of the late first-row transition metals nickel and copper, though it has a filled d-shell, so its compounds are diamagnetic and mostly colorless. The ionic radii of zinc and magnesium happen to be nearly identical. Because of this some of their salts have the same crystal structure and in circumstances where ionic radius is a determining factor zinc and magnesium chemistries have much in common. Otherwise there is little similarity. Zinc tends to form bonds with a greater degree of covalency and it forms much more stable complexes with N- and S- donors. Complexes of zinc are mostly 4- or 6- coordinate although 5-coordinate complexes are known.

Zinc compounds are rare, and requires bulky ligands to stabilize the low oxidation state. Most zinc compounds contains formally the [Zn2]2+ core, which is analogous to the [Hg2]2+ dimeric cation present in mercury compounds. The diamagnetic nature of the ion confirms its dimeric structure. The first zinc compound containing the Zn—Zn bond, (η5-C5Me5)2Zn2, is also the first dimetallocene. The [Zn2]2+ ion rapidly disproportionates into zinc metal and zinc, and has only been obtained as a yellow glass formed by cooling a solution of metallic zinc in molten ZnCl2.

Binary compounds of zinc are known for most of the metalloids and all the nonmetals except the noble gases. The oxide ZnO is a white powder that is nearly insoluble in neutral aqueous solutions, but is amphoteric, dissolving in both strong basic and acidic solutions. The other chalcogenides (ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe) have varied applications in electronics and optics. Pnictogenides (Zn3N2, Zn3P2, Zn3As2 and Zn3Sb2), the peroxide (ZnO2), the hydride (ZnH2), and the carbide (ZnC2) are also known. Of the four halides, ZnF2 has the most ionic character, whereas the others (ZnCl2, ZnBr2, and ZnI2) have relatively low melting points and are considered to have more covalent character.

In weak basic solutions containing Zn2+ ions, the hydroxide Zn(OH)2 forms as a white precipitate. In stronger alkaline solutions, this hydroxide is dissolved to form zincates ([Zn(OH)4]2−). The nitrate Zn(NO3)2, chlorate Zn(ClO3)2, sulfate ZnSO4, phosphate Zn3(PO4)2, molybdate ZnMoO4, cyanide Zn(CN)2, arsenite Zn(AsO2)2, arsenate Zn(AsO4)2·8H2O and the chromate ZnCrO4 (one of the few colored zinc compounds) are a few examples of other common inorganic compounds of zinc. One of the simplest examples of an organic compound of zinc is the acetate (Zn(O2CCH3)2). Organozinc compounds are those that contain zinc–carbon covalent bonds. Diethylzinc ((C2H5)2Zn) is a reagent in synthetic chemistry. It was first reported in 1848 from the reaction of zinc and ethyl iodide, and was the first compound known to contain a metal carbon sigma bond.

Chemical Properties of Chlorothalonil

Chlorothalonil is a colourless and odourless white crystalline solid that is soluble in water. It is used as a fungicide for vegetable, fruit, field, and ornamental crops as well as lawns and turfs. It may also be referred to as Daconil, Bravo, or 1,3-dicyanotetrachlorobenzene. There are numerous other synonyms and product names.

The IUPAC name of Chlorothalonil is 2,4,5,6-tetrachlorobenzene-1,3-dicarbonitrile. With the CAS registry number 1897-45-6. The product’s categories are organics; aromatics pesticides & metabolites; endocrine disruptors (draft); EPA; fungicides; pesticides. It is white crystal with no odor when pure; technical grade has a slightly pungent odor. It is stable in neutral or acidic aqueous media and may react violently with strong oxidizing acids. Additionlly, this chemical should be sealed in the container and stored at the temperature of 0-6 °C.



Molecular Formula:C8Cl4N2

CAS Registry Number:1897-45-6

Synonyms:Tetrachloro isophthalo nitrile; Chlorothalonil suspensoid; Chlorothalonil fumigant; Tetrachloroisophthalodinitrile


Appearance:white crystalline powder

Molecular Weight:265.91


Boiling Point:350 °C

Melting Point:250 – 251 °C

Flash Point:not considered as a fire hazard

Storage Temperature:0-6°C

Refractive index:1.632

Solubility:poorly soluble Solvent

General Description: Colorless crystals or granules or light gray powder. Melting point 250-251°C. No odor when pure; technical grade has a slightly pungent odor. A fungicide formulated as water-dispersible granules, wettable powder, or dust.

Air & Water Reactions: Insoluble in water.

Reactivity Profile: Chlorothalonil is stable in neutral or acidic aqueous media. May react violently with strong oxidizing acids [Farm Chemicals Handbook]. Incompatible with other oxidizing agents such as peroxides and epoxides. Breaks down slowly in basic aqueous media (half-life 38.1 days at pH 9. [Farm Chemicals Handbook].

Fire Hazard: Literature sources indicate that Chlorothalonil is nonflammable.

Preparation of Chlorothalonil: It can be obtained by the direct chlorination of isophthalonitrile or by treating tetrachloroisophthaloyl amide with phosphoryl chloride.

Uses of Chlorothalonil: It is a polychlorinated aromatic mainly used as a broad spectrum, non-systemic fungicide, with other uses as a wood protectant, pesticide, acaricide, and to control mold, mildew, bacteria, algae. In addition, it can react with methanol to get 1,3-dicyano-4-methoxy-2,5,6-trichlorobenzene. This reaction needs reagent water and KOH by heating. The reaction time is 1 hours. The yield is 45%.

When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following:

It is highly flammable and harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. In addition, it is irritating to eyes and respiratory system. Chlorothalonil is very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of soap-suds. If you want to contact this product, you must wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection. In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.) This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste. And people should avoid release to the environment.

Methyl methacrylate

The IUPAC name of Methyl methacrylate is methyl 2-methylprop-2-enoate. With the CAS registry number 80-62-6, it is also named as 2-Methyl-2-propenoic acid methyl ester. The product’s categories are Low Refractive Index Monomers; Acrylic Monomers; Carbonyl Compounds; Esters; Methacrylate; Waveguide Materials; META – METH Cosmetics; Allergens; Alpha Sort; MAlphabetic; Other Additives; Volatiles/ Semivolatiles. It is clear colorless liquid which is slightly soluble in water, soluble in alcohol, ether, acetone and other organic solvents. In addition, this chemical is flammable by fire, heat and oxidants. Besides, it should be sealed in the container and stored in the cool and dry place.


1. Properties

Name:Methyl methacrylate
Molecular Formula:C5H8O2
CAS Registry Number:80-62-6
Synonyms:MMA; Methacrylic acid methyl ester; 2-Methylacrylic acid methyl ester; METHYL METACRYLATE
HS Code:29161410
Molecular Weight:100.12
Boiling Point:100℃
Melting Point:-48℃
Flash Point:8℃
Storage Temperature:Refrigerator
Refractive index:1.413-1.415
Solubility:15.9 g/L (20 oC) in water


2. Preparation of Methyl methacrylate


It is produced by the acetone cyanohydrin process in which the acetone cyanohydrin (from the reaction of acetone with hydrogen cyanide, q.v.) is reacted with sulfuric acid to yield methacrylamide sulfate, which is further hydrolyzed and esterified. The process is continuous.


CH3C(OH·CN)CH3 + H+ → CH2=C(CH3)C(=O)NH3+
CH2=C(CH3)C(=O)NH3+ + CH3OH + HSO4- → CH2=C(CH3)C(=O)OCH3 + NH4SO4


3. Uses of Methyl methacrylate


It is used for the production of the co-polymer methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene (MBS), used as a modifier for PVC. The principal application of this chemical is the manufacture of polymethyl methacrylate acrylic plastics (PMMA). Methyl methacrylate is polymerized to poly(methyl methacrylate), which is used in cast and extruded sheet, molding powder and resins, surface coatings, impact modifiers, and emulsion polymers. In addition, it reacts with acetoacetic acid ethyl ester to get 2-acetyl-4-methyl-glutaric acid-1-ethyl ester-5-methyl ester. This reaction needs reagent sodium ethylate and ethanol.


4. Precautions of Methyl methacrylate


When you are using Methyl methacrylate, please be cautious about it as the following:
It is highly flammable, so people should keep it away from sources of ignition. It is not only toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed, but also irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. So people should avoid contact with skin. If you want to contact this product, you must wear suitable protective clothing and gloves. In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label whenever possible.) If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label.

1-Bromo-3,5-difluorobenzene Properties

1-Bromo-3,5-difluorobenzene , its cas register number is 461-96-1. It also can be called Benzene, 1-bromo-3,5-difluoro ; 3,5-Difluorobromobenzene . 1-Bromo-3,5-difluorobenzene (CAS NO.461-96-1) is a clear colourless to light yellow liquid.

1. Properties



Molecular Formula:C6H3BrF2

CAS Registry Number:461-96-1

Synonyms:1-bromo-3,5-difluoro-benzene; 3,5-Difluorobromobenzene; 3,5-Difluoro-1-Bromobenzene; 1-Bromo-3,5-Difluorobromobenzene; Benzene, 1-bromo-3,5-difluoro-; 1,3-Difluoro-5-bromobenzene; 3,5-Difluoro-Bromobenzene;


Appearance:colorless clear liquid

Molecular Weight:192.99


Boiling Point:140℃

Melting Point:-27℃

Flash Point:45℃

Storage Temperature:Flammables area

Refractive index:1.498-1.5

Solubility:0.238 g/L (20 oC)

Usage:Intermediates of Liquid Crystals

2. Safety information

Hazard Codes: Xn,Xi , N,  F,

The Risk Statements information of  1-Bromo-3,5-difluorobenzene :

10:  Flammable

22:  Harmful if swallowed

38:  Irritating to the skin

43:  May cause sensitization by skin contact

36/37/38:  Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin

48/22:  Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed

50/53:  Very Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment

The Safety Statements information of  1-Bromo-3,5-difluorobenzene:

16:  Keep away from sources of ignition – No smoking

24:  Avoid contact with skin

26:  In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice

36:  Wear suitable protective clothing

60:  This material and/or its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste

61:  Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions safety data sheet

36/37:  Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves

RIDADR: UN 1993 3/PG 3

WGK Germany:2

Hazard Note:Flammable