What’s Sodium Hypochlorite?

Sodium Hypochlorite is a greenish-yellow liquid commonly referred to as “Bleach.”  The Sodium hypochlorite is an organic compound with the formula NaClO. The IUPAC name of this chemical is sodium hypochlorite. it is also named as Hypochlorous acid, sodium salt. The product’s categories are Industrial/Fine Chemicals; Biocide; Hypochlorites; Hypochlorites Essential Chemicals; Oxidation; Reagent Grade; Routine Reagents; Synthetic Reagents. Besides, it has strong odour, which should be stored in a cool and well-ventilated place.
1. Uses of Sodium hypochlorite
In household form, sodium hypochlorite is used for removal of stains from laundry. It is particularly effective on cotton fiber, which stains easily but bleaches well. Sodium hypochlorite has been used for the disinfection of drinking water. In batch treatment operations, sodium hypochlorite has been used to treat more concentrated cyanide wastes, such as silver cyanide plating solutions. Sodium hypochlorite is now used in endodontics during root canal treatments.
2. Physical properties about Sodium hypochlorite
Name:Sodium hypochlorite

EINECS:231-668-3

Molecular Formula:NaClO

CAS Registry Number:7681-52-9 

InChI:InChI=1/ClO.Na/c1-2;/q-1;+1
Appearance:colourless liquid with strong odour

Molecular Weight:74.44

Density:1.25 g/mL at 20 °C

Boiling Point:111 °C

Melting Point:-16 °C

Storage Temperature:2-8°C

Solubility:Decomposes.

Stability:Stable. Contact with acids releases poisonous gas ( chlorine ). Light sensitive. Incompatible with strong acids, amines, ammonia, ammonium salts, reducing agents, metals, aziridine, methanol, formic acid, phenylacetonitrile.
Chemical Properties:colourless liquid with strong odour
General Description: Green to yellow watery liquid with an odor of bleaching liquid odor. Sinks and mixes with water.
Air & Water Reactions: Water soluble. Decomposes into chlorine and oxygen gases in hot water.
Reactivity Profile:Salts of hypochlorous acid, HClO. Generally toxic, irritants and powerful oxidizers, particularly in the presence of water at higher temperature as they decompose to release oxygen and chlorine gases. On contact with urea they form the highly explosive NCl3 . When heated or on contact with acids, they produce highly toxic fumes of chlorine gas . Can react with sulfuric acid to produce heat and chlorine gas.
Health Hazard :Liquid can be irritating to skin and eyes if contact is maintained.
Fire Hazard: Behavior in Fire: May decompose, generating irritating chlorine gas.
3. Preparation of Sodium hypochlorite
This is the only large scale industrial method of sodium hypochlorite production. In this process sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and sodium chloride (NaCl) are formed when chlorine is passed into cold and dilute sodium hydroxide solution. It is prepared industrially by electrolysis with minimal separation between the anode and the cathode. The solution must be kept below 40 °C (by cooling coils) to prevent the undesired formation of sodium chlorate.
Cl2 + 2 NaOH → NaCl + NaClO + H2O
4. Safety of Sodium hypochlorite
When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following:
It contacts with acids liberates toxic gas and can cause burns. After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of . In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. Besides, this chemical is irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. When you are using it, wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection. In case of accident or if you feel unwell seek medical advice immediately.
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Hazard of Chromium(VI) oxide

Chromium(VI) oxide is a red compound, CrO3; rhombic; r.d. 2.70; m.p. 196°C. It can be made by careful addition of concentrated sulphuric acid to an ice-cooled concentrated aqueous solution of sodium dichromate with stirring. The mixture is then filtered through sintered glass, washed with nitric acid, then dried at 120°C in a desiccator.

Chromium(VI) oxide is an extremely powerful oxidizing agent, especially to organic matter; it immediately inflames ethanol. It is an acidic oxide and dissolves in water to form ‘chromic acid’, a powerful oxidizing agent and cleansing fluid for glassware. At 400°C, chromium(VI) oxide loses oxygen to give chromium(III) oxide.

Chromium (VI) Oxide(CAS.NO:1333-82-0) is a red odorless powder.  It is used in chrome plating, aluminum anodizing, dye, ink and paint manufacturing,  tanning, engraving and photography.
 1. Chronic Health Effects 

The following chronic (long-term) health effects can occur at some time after exposure to Chromium (VI) Oxide and can last for months or years:
1) Cancer Hazard
 *    Chromium (VI) Oxide is a CARCINOGEN in humans.  It has been shown to cause lung and throat cancer.

 *    Many scientists believe there is no safe level of exposure to a carcinogen. Such substances may also have the potential for causing reproductive damage in humans.

2) Reproductive Hazard

 *    There is limited evidence that Chromium (VI) Oxide is a teratogen in animals. until further testing has been done, it should be treated as a possible teratogen in humans.

3) Other Long-Term Effects
 *    Chromium (VI) Oxide can cause a hole in the “bone” dividing  the inner  nose.  Early signs may occur, of irritation,  discharge, bleeding, and/or formation of a crust in the inner nose.

 *    Exposed persons may develop a skin allergy, with a rash like eczema.  If this happens, any future skin contact can trigger severe rash.

 *    Upset stomach and sometimes stomach ulcers can occur.

 *    Exposure may cause irritation of the bronchial tubes  (bronchitis) with cough and phlegm.

 *    Lung allergy, with wheezing or shortness of breath, sometimes  occurs.  In such cases, even small future exposures can cause symptoms.  Repeated attacks may lead to lung scarring.

 *    Repeated or severe exposure may cause liver or kidney damage, growths (polyps) on the voice box, or changes in the blood count.
2. Hazard Summary
 *    Chromium (VI) Oxide can affect you when breathed in.  It can also enter the body through the skin.

 *    Chromium (VI) Oxide is a carcinogen–handle with extreme caution.

 *    Eye contact can cause severe damage with possible loss of  vision.

 *    Breathing Chromium (VI) Oxide can cause a sore or hole through the inner nose (septum), sometime with bleeding, discharge or crusting.  Irritation of nose, throat and bronchial tubes can also occur, with cough and/or wheezing.

 *    Skin contact can cause deep ulcers, or an allergic skin rash. Severe skin irritation may also occur.
3. Spillage Disposal
Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Vacuum spilled material. OR Sweep spilled substance into sealable containers; if appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting. Carefully collect remainder, then remove to safe place. Do NOT absorb in saw-dust or other combustible absorbents. Personal protection: complete protective clothing including self-contained breathing apparatus.

Sodium chloride’s Uses And Preparation

Sodium chloride, also known as salt, common salt, table salt or halite, is an ionic compound with the formula NaCl, representing equal proportions of sodium and chlorine. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of the ocean and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. In the form of edible or table salt it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical syntheses. A second major consumer of sodium chloride is de-icing of roadways in sub-freezing weather.

1. Uses of Sodium chloride 
As the major ingredient in edible salt, Sodium chloride is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. Sodium chloride can manufacture pulp and paper, to setting dyes in textiles and fabric, to producing soaps, detergents, and other bath products. Sodium chloride is sometimes used as a cheap and safe desiccant because of its hygroscopic properties.
Salt also is added to secure the soil and to provide firmness to the foundation on which highways are built. Road salt ends up in fresh water bodies and could harm aquatic plants and animals by disrupting their osmoregulation ability. The industrial uses of salt include, in descending order of quantity consumed, various applications, oil and gas exploration, textiles and dyeing, pulp and paper, metal processing, tanning and leather treatment, and rubber manufacture. It is used to flocculate and increase the density of the drilling fluid to overcome high downwell gas pressures.
In textiles and dyeing, salt is used as a brine rinse to separate organic contaminants, to promote “salting out” of dyestuff precipitates, and to blend with concentrated dyes to standardize them. In metal processing, salt is used in concentrating uranium ore into uranium oxide (yellow cake). It also is used in processing aluminium, beryllium, copper, steel and vanadium. In the pulp and paper industry, salt is used to bleach wood pulp. It also is used to make sodium chlorate. In rubber manufacture, salt is used to make buna, neoprene and white rubber types.
2. Preparation of Sodium chloride

Salt is currently mass-produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources, such as brine wells and salt lakes, and by mining rock salt, called halite. Using sold salt dissoves in distilled water. The mixture is boiled after addition of sodium hydroxide, then is stored overnight and filtered. You should keep filtrate clean and then cool down it simultaneously put into pure HCl gas to make the mixture saturated. After that, crystal of Sodium chloride will separate out. There are also three methods of Sodium chloride production and purification: brine solution, rock salt mining, and the open pan or grainer process:
To produce Sodium chloride from brine, water is pumped into the salt deposit and the saturated salt solution containing 26% salt, 73.5% water, and 0.5% impurities, is removed. Hydrogen sulfide is removed by aeration, and oxidation with chlorine. Calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), and iron (Fe3+) are precipitated as the carbonates using soda ash and are removed in a settling tank. The brine solution can be sold directly or it can be evaporated to give salt of 99.8% purity.
Rock salt is produced from deep mines so that the salt is taken directly from the deposit. Salt obtained by this method is 98.5 to 99.4% pure.
In the open pan or grainer salt method, hot brine solution is held in an open pan approximately 4 to 6 meters wide, 45 to 60 meters long, and 60 cm deep at 96°C. Flat, pure sodium chloride crystals form on the surface and fall to the bottom and are raked to a centrifuge, separated from the brine, and dried. A purity of 99.98% is obtained. A vacuum pan system is also available.

Physical properties About Sodium chloride

Sodium chloride. With the CAS register number 7647-14-5. The substance is an ionic compound with the formula NaCl. Sodium chloride is soluble in water and glycerol, but insoluble in alcohol. Sodium chloride is stable. You must avoid contact with strong acids which when in contact may evolve chlorine gas. Sodium chloride will become corrosive to metals when wet. What’s more, its EINECS number is 231-598-3.

Water solution of Sodium chloride is alkaline with the PH value 6.7-7.3. It is soluble in water, salty, and has low thermal conductivity. In addition, it won’t conduct electricity. Sodium chloride has a strong hygroscopicity and can deliquesce easily. Rock salt is the most widely content in salt mine.
Sodium chloride is an ionic compound found in various foods and medical treatments. More commonly referred to as “salt” or “table salt,” sodium chloride is used as a seasoning in many foods.
Medically, sodium chloride solutions are used in catheter flush injections or intravenous infusions, and for cleaning objects such as contact lenses in the form of saline. Sodium chloride inhalation can remove certain bacteria in body secretions.

Name:Sodium Chloride

EINECS:231-598-3

Molecular Formula:NaCl

CAS Registry Number:7647-14-5 

InChI:InChI=1/ClH.Na/h1H;/q;+1/p-1

HS Code:3822 00 00

Appearance:colourless crystals or white powder

Molecular Weight:58.44

Density:2.165

Boiling Point:1461°C

Melting Point:801°C

Flash Point:1413°C

Storage Temperature:Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from incompatible substances.

Refractive index:n20/D 1.378

Solubility:360 g/L (20 °C)

Stability:Stable under normal shipping and handling conditions.

Chemical Properties:White crystalline powder

Usage:Facilitates the cross-coupling of organostannanes with iodides without using palladium.1

General Description:A white crystalline solid. Commercial grade usually contains some chlorides of calcium and magnesium which absorb moisture and cause caking.

Air & Water Reactions: Water soluble.

Reactivity Profile: Sodium chloride is generally unreactive. Releases gaseous hydrogen chloride if mixed with a concentrated nonvolatile acid such as sulfuric acid.

Fire Hazard: Literature sources indicate that Sodium chloride is nonflammable.

Safety of Sodium gluconate

Sodium gluconate , with CAS number of 527-07-1, can be called D-Gluconic acid, monosodium salt ; Gluconato di sodio ; Monosodium D-gluconate ; Gluconic acid sodium salt ; Sodium D-gluconate ; Sodium gluconate . It is a white or off-white granular powder.
Sodium gluconate is widely used in textile dyeing, printing and metal surface water treatment. It is also used as a chelating agent, a steel surface cleaning agent, a cleaning agent for glass bottles, and as a chelating agent for cement, plating and alumina dyeing industries. It is a white colorless powder that is very soluble in water.
1. Danger
1)Swallowed
 
Although ingestion is not thought to produce harmful effects, Sodium gluconate may still be damaging to the health of the individual following ingestion, especially where pre-existing organ (e.g. liver, kidney) damage is evident. Present definitions of harmful or toxic substances are generally based on doses producing mortality (death) rather than those producing morbidity (disease, ill-health). Gastrointestinal tract discomfort may produce nausea and vomiting. In an occupational setting however, ingestion of insignificant quantities is not thought to be cause for concern.
2)Eye
Although Sodium gluconate is not thought to be an irritant, direct contact with the eye may cause transient discomfort characterized by tearing or conjunctival redness (as with windburn). Slight abrasive damage may also result. The material may produce foreign body irritation in certain individuals.
3)Skin
Sodium gluconate is not thought to produce adverse health effects or skin irritation following contact (as classified using animal models). Nevertheless, good hygiene practice requires that exposure be kept to a minimum and that suitable gloves be used in an occupational setting.
4)Inhaled
Sodium gluconate is not thought to produce adverse health effects or irritation of the respiratory tract (as classified using animal models). Nevertheless, good hygiene practice requires that exposure be kept to a minimum and that suitable control measures be used in an occupational setting.
Persons with impaired respiratory function, airway diseases and conditions such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis, may incur further disability if excessive concentrations of particulate are inhaled.
Not normally a hazard due to non-volatile nature of product.
2. Storage Requirements
*Store in original containers.

*Keep containers securely sealed.

*Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area.

*Store away from incompatible materials and foodstuff containers.

*Protect containers against physical damage and check regularly for leaks.

 

Captopril:application, dose, side effect,storage

Captopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used for the treatment of hypertension and some types of congestive heart failure. Captopril was the first ACE inhibitor developed and was considered a breakthrough both because of its novel mechanism of action and also because of the revolutionary development process. Captopril is commonly marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb under the trade name Capoten.
1. What can Captopril be used for?
Captopril’s main uses are based on its vasodilation and inhibition of some renal function activities. These benefits are most clearly seen in the following conditions:

1) Hypertension

2) Cardiac conditions such as congestive heart failure and after myocardial infarction

3) Preservation of kidney function in diabetic nephropathy

Additionally, it has shown mood-elevating properties in some patients. This is consistent with the observation that animal screening models indicate putative antidepressant activity for this compound, although there has been one negative study. Formal clinical trials in depressed patients have not been reported.
2. How to store captopril
*Keep all medicines out of the reach and sight of children.

*Store in a cool, dry place, away from direct heat and light.
3. What happens if I miss a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.
4. What happens if I overdose?
Captopril (as other ACE inhibitors) overdose can be antagonized with naloxone.
5. What’s the side effects of Captopril?
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction to captopril: hives; severe stomach pain; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
1)Call your doctor at once if you have:
*a light-headed feeling, like you might pass out;

*little or no urinating, or urinating more than usual;

*shortness of breath (even with mild exertion), swelling, rapid weight gain;

*chest pain or pressure, pounding heartbeats or fluttering in your chest;

*high potassium (slow heart rate, weak pulse, muscle weakness, tingly feeling); or

*sudden weakness or ill feeling, fever, chills, sore throat, painful mouth sores, pain when *swallowing, skin sores, cold or flu symptoms.
2)Common captopril side effects may include:
*cough;

*flushing (warmth, redness, or tingly feeling);

*numbness, tingling, or burning pain in your hands or feet;

*loss of taste sensation; or

*mild skin itching or rash.

The Usage and Side Effects of Diclofenac sodium

Diclofenac sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) which is primarily used to help treat the symptoms of arthritis. These medications can help reduce the swelling and inflammation caused by the disease to help provide comfort to the patient. However, NSAID medication cannot cure arthritis or any similar diseases. You may only use this medication with a valid prescription from your doctor. Much of the use and dosing of diclofenac sodium will be dependent on the patient’s condition, reaction to the medication and the disease being treated.

1. Indications and Usage

Diclofenac sodium(CAS.NO:15307-79-6) is sold under the brand names Cambia, Cataflam, Voltaren, Voltaren-XR and Zipsor. These medications are used to help relieve the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, pain, inflammation, swelling, stiffness and joint pain. In some cases, this medication will be used as part of a treatment regimen for ankylosing spondylitis, menstrual cramps or acute migraine attacks.
Diclofenac sodium is available in enteric coated tablets, extended release tablets, capsules, powder or solution, liquid filled capsule or a traditional tablet form. Dosing and instructions will vary based on the condition that is to be treated. You should not take more than instructed as this can lead to an increased risk of side effects. If you are using this medication for arthritis, you will usually be ordered to take this medication once a day for up to two weeks or until you begin to feel better. It may take several weeks until you feel the full effects of the medication.
Most forms of diclofenac sodium can be taken with or without food, though the oral solution should be taken on an empty stomach. If you are using the oral solution, only open the packaging right as you are about to use it. Mix the contents of one packed with up to 2 ounces of water and drink immediately. Do not use any other liquid to mix this medication.
2. Diclofenac Sodium Side Effects
Common side effects of diclofenac sodium include heartburn, constipation, diarrhea, unexplained bleeding, ulcers in the stomach or intestines, gas, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, dizziness, swelling, headache, itching, ringing in the ears or unexplained rash. These side effects occur in up to 10 percent of users. In most cases these side effects are not cause for alarm, but you should report them to your doctor right away to determine if you need additional treatment or an alteration in your prescription size.
More severe side effects to diclofenac sodium include fever, infection, congestive heart failure, hypertension, ecchymosis, esophagitis, depression, asthma, blurred vision, alopecia, or cystitis. Inform your doctor right away if these conditions begin to develop while you are using this medication.
Rare but serious side effects to diclofenac sodium include anaphylactic reactions, arrhythmia, colitis, liver failure, hemolytic anemia, hyperglycemia, convulsions, coma, hallucinations, respiratory depression, angioedema, toxic epidermal necrolysis, conjunctivitis and hearing impairment. If you begin to suffer from any of these symptoms, talk to a medical professional right away about whether or not it is safe to continue using diclofenac sodium. If at any point you feel as though your life is in danger due to your side effects, contact emergency medical services immediately.
If you begin to suffer from lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting or epigastric pain you may be suffering from an overdose of your medication. Contact emergency medical services immediately to get treatment to reverse these effects. If possible, have information ready regarding how much of your medication you have taken and when so you can help these professionals determine how best to assist you.